**Kari Lock Morgan, Assistant Professor of Statistics, Penn State University**

Computers (or miniature versions such as smart phones) are necessary to do simulation-based inference. How then can we assess knowledge and understanding of these methods *without* computers? Never fear, this can be done! I personally *choose* to give exams without technology, despite teaching in a computer classroom once a week, largely to avoid the headache of proctoring a large class with internet access. Here are some general tips I’ve found helpful for assessing SBI without technology:

** Much of the understanding to be assessed is NOT specific to SBI.** In any given example, calculating a p-value or interval is but one small part of a larger context that often includes scope of inference, defining parameter(s), stating hypotheses, interpreting plot(s) of the data, calculating the statistic, interpreting the p-value or interval in context, and making relevant conclusions. The assessment of this content can be largely independent of whether SBI is used.

** In lieu of technology, give pictures of randomization and bootstrap distributions. **Eyeballing an interval or p-value from a picture of a bootstrap or randomization distribution can be difficult for students, difficult to grade, and an irrelevant skill to assess. Here are several alternative approaches to get from a picture and observed statistic to a p-value or interval without technology:

Choose examples with obviously small or not small p-values.