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Univariate Distributions

  • This online resource is intended to help students understand concepts from probability and statistics and covers many topics from introductory to advanced. You can follow the progression of the text, or you can click on a topic on the left. Key Words: Alpha Reliability; Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA); Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); Bayesian Analysis; Bias; Binomial regression; Bonferroni adjustment; Bootstrapping; Categorical modeling; Central limit theorem; Chi-squared test; Clinical significance; Cluster analysis; Coefficient of variation; Confidence Intervals; Contingency Table; Controlled trial; Confounders; Correlation; Dimension reduction; Discriminant function analysis; Frequency; Normal; Poisson; Probability Distribution; Effect; Error; Factor Analysis; Goodness of Fit; Heteroscedasticity; Hypothesis Testing; Independence, Interactions; Kappa Coefficient; Latin Squares; Least Squares Means; Likert scales; Linear Regression; Logistic Regression; Multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA); Mixed Modeling; Multiple Linear Regression; Nonparametric models; Odds ratio; P Values; Path Analysis; Percentiles; Polynomial Regression; Power; PRESS; Probability; Relative Frequency; Repeated Measures; Sample Size; Sampling; Sensitivity; Stepwise regression; Structural equation modeling; T Test; Transformation; Validity.
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  • This page provides distribution calculators for the binomial, normal, Student's T, Chi-square, and Fisher's F distributions. Users set the parameters and enter either the probability or the test statistic and the calculators return the missing value.
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  • This applet demonstrates the Binomial distribution by simulating Galton's Board, dropping balls through a triangular array of nails. When a ball hits a nail, it has a 50 percent chance of falling to the left or the right. Because Galton's Board consists of a series of experiments, the piles under the board are the sum of n random variables, where n is the number of rows of nails on the board.
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  • This applet demonstrates the Normal approximation to the Poisson Distribution. Users can set the rate, lambda (‘é), and the number of trials, n, and observe how the shape of the distribution changes. The Poisson distribution is shown in blue, and the Normal distribution is shown in red.
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  • This page helps readers know which statistcal tests are appropriate for the different types of data. Two charts display the information. A discussion of study design and sample size, as well as exercise questions with solutions are also provided.
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  • This page provides a t-table with degrees of freedom 1-30, 60, 120, and infinity and seven levels of alpha from .1 to .0005.

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  • This page provides a z-table with alpha levels from .00 to .09.

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  • This page provides a table of Chi-square distribution probabilities with degress of freedom 1-45.
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  • This page provides a table of F distribution probabilities for alpha = 0.10, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.01.

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  • This table shows the critical values values of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney statistics (Us) for various sample sizes (N1 and N2) and p-values (p).
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