Core readings in statistics education


Readings that outline the ideas of statistics and the uniqueness of statistics

Cobb, George. (1992). Teaching statistics. In Lynn A. Steen (Ed.), Heeding the call for change: Suggestions for curricular action (MAA Notes No. 22, pp. 3-43). Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.
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Cobb, George, & Moore, David S. (1997). Mathematics, statistics, and teaching. American Mathematical Monthly, 104(9), 801-823.
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Moore, David S. (1990). Uncertainty. In Lynn S. Steen (Ed.), On the shoulders of giants: New approaches to numeracy (pp. 95-137). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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Moore, David S., Cobb, George W., Garfield, Joan, & Meeker, William Q. (1995). Statistics education fin de siècle. The American Statistician, 49(3), 250-260.
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Moore, David. (1997). New pedagogy and new content: The case of statistics. International Statistics Review, 65, 123-165.
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Readings that summarize and synthesize the research literature

Garfield, Joan, & Ahlgren, Andrew. (1988). Difficulties in learning basic concepts in probability and statistics: Implications for research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,19(1), 44-63.
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Garfield, Joan. (1995). How students learn statistics. International Statistical Review, 63, 25-34.
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Konold, Clifford, & Higgins, Traci L. ( 2003). Reasoning about data. In Jeremy Kilpatrick, W. Gary Martin, & Deborah Schifter (Eds.), A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics (pp. 193-215). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
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Lajoie, Susanne P., Jacobs, Victoria R., & Lavigne, Nancy C. (1995). Empowering children in the use of statistics. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 14(4), 401-425.
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Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (1992). Research in probability and statistics: Reflections and directions. In Douglas A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 465-494). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
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Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (2003). Research on students' understanding of probability. In Jeremy Kilpatrick, W. Gary Martin, & Deborah Schifter (Eds.), A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics (pp. 216-226). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
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Shaughnessy, J. Michael, Garfield, Joan, & Greer, Brian. (1996). Data handling. In Alan J. Bishop, Ken Clements, Christine Keitel, Jeremy Kilpatrick, & Colette Laborde (Eds.), International Handbook of Mathematics Education, I (pp. 205-237). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Books on Statistics Education

Ben-Zvi, Dani, & Garfield, Joan. (Eds.). (2004). The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Garfield, Joan, & Burrill, Gail. (Eds.). (1997). Research on the role of technology in teaching and learning statistics. Proceedings of the 1996 IASE Round Table Conference. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
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Hawkins, Anne, Jolliffe, Flavia, & Glickman, Leslie. (1992). Teaching statistical concepts. London: Longman.
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Lajoie, Susanne. (Ed.). (1998). Reflections on statistics: Learning, teaching, and assessment in grades K-12. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Readings on research issues in statistics education

Batanero, Carmen, Garfield, Joan B., & Ottaviani, M. Gabriella. (2001). Building a research agenda for statistics education: A response to reactions in SERN 2(1). Statistical Education Research Newsletter, 2(2), 9-14.
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Green, David. (1993). Data analysis: What research do we need? In Lionel Pereira-Mendoza (Ed.), Introducing data analysis in the schools: Who should teach it? Proceedings of the 1992 ISI Round Table Conference, 219-239. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
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Jolliffe, Flavia. (1998). What is research in statistical education? In Lionel Pereira-Mendoza, Lua Seu Kea, Tang Wee Kee, & Wing-Keung Wong (Eds.), Statistical Education: Expanding the Network. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Teaching of Statistics, 801-806. Singapore: International Statistical Institute.
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Holcomb, John. (2002). The ethics of comparison: a statistician wrestles with the orthodoxy of a control group. In Pat Hutchings (Ed.), Ethical Issues in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Menlo Park, CA: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (1997). Missed opportunities in research on the teaching and learning of data and chance. In Fred Biddulph & Ken Carr (Eds.), People in mathematics education. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated, 1, 6-22. Waikato, New Zealand: Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.
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Readings on Specific Topics in Statistics Education

Classic studies of children's' intuitions about probability

Fischbein, Efraim. (1975). The intuitive sources of probabilistic thinking in children. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
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Piaget, Jean, & Inhelder, Barbel. (1975). The origin of the idea of chance in children. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
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Studies of reasoning about probability

Falk, Ruma, & Konold, Clifford. (1994). Random means hard to digest. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 16(1), 2-12.
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Fong, Geoffrey T., Krantz, David H., & Nisbett, Richard E. (1986). The effects of statistical training on thinking about everyday problems. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 253-292.
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Kahneman, Daniel, Slovic, Paul, & Tversky, Amos. (Eds.). (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Konold, Clifford. (1989). Informal conceptions of probability. Cognition and Instruction, 6, 59-98.
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Konold, Clifford, Pollatsek, Alexander, Well, Arnie, Lohmeier, Jill, & Lipson, Abigail. (1993). Inconsistencies in students' reasoning about probability. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 24, 392-414.
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Lecoutre, Marie-Paule. (1992). Cognitive models and problem spaces in "purely random" situations. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 23, 557-568.
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Metz, Kathleen E. (1998). Emergent understanding and attribution of randomness: Comparative analysis of the reasoning of primary grade children and undergraduates. Cognition and Instruction, 16, 285-365.
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Pollatsek, Alexander, Konold, Clifford E., Well, Arnie D., & Lima, S. D. (1984). Beliefs underlying random sampling. Memory & Cognition, 12, 395-401.
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Readings on technology in teaching statistics

Ben-Zvi, Dani. (2000). Towards understanding the role of technological tools in statistical learning. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2(1-2), 127-155.
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Biehler, Rolf. (1997). Software for learning and for doing statistics. International Statistical Review, 65(2), 167-189.
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Hawkins, Anne. (1997). Myth-Conceptions!. In Garfield, Joan, & Burrill, Gail. (Eds.). (1997). Research on the role of technology in teaching and learning statistics. Proceedings of the 1996 IASE Round Table Conference (pp. 1-14). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
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Readings on statistical reasoning or thinking

Cobb, Paul. (1999). Individual and collective mathematical learning: The case of statistical data analysis. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 1(1), 5-44.
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delMas, Robert (2004). A comparison of mathematical and statistical reasoning. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 79-95). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Jones, Graham A., Langrall, Cynthia W., Thornton, Carol A., & Mogill, A. Timothy. (1997). A framework for assessing and nurturing young children's thinking in probability. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 32, 101-125.
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Jones, Graham A., Thornton, Carol A., Langrall, Cynthia W., Mooney, Edward S., Perry, Bob, & Putt, Ian J. (2000). A framework for characterizing children's statistical thinking. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2, 269-307.
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Lovett, Marsha, and Greenhouse, Joel B. (2000). Applying cognitive theory to statistics instruction. The American Statistician, 54(3), 196-206
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Lovett, Marsha C. (2001). A collaborative convergence on studying reasoning processes: A case study in statistics. In Sharon M. Carver and David Klahr (Eds.), Cognition and instruction: twenty-five years of progress (pp. 347-384). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Nisbett , Richard. (1993). Rules for reasoning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Pfannkuch, Maxine, & Wild, Chris. (2004). Towards an understanding of statistical thinking. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 17-46). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Sedlmeier, Peter. (1999). Improving statistical reasoning: Theoretical models and practical implications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Wild, Chris, & Pfannkuch, Maxine. (1999). Statistical thinking in empirical enquiry. International Statistical Review, 67, 223-266.
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Readings on statistical literacy

Cobb, George W. (1997). Mere literacy is not enough. In Lynn A. Steen (Ed.), Why numbers count: Quantitative literacy for tomorrow's America (pp. 75-90). New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
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Gal, Iddo. (2002). Adults' statistical literacy: Meanings, components, responsibilities. International Statistical Review, 70, 1-51.
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Wallman, Katherine K. (1993). Enhancing statistical literacy: Enriching our society. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88(421), 1-8.
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Readings on student assessment

Chance, Beth L. (1997). Experiences with authentic assessment techniques in an introductory statistics course. Journal of Statistics Education, 5(3). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v5n3/chance.html
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Gal, Iddo, & Garfield, Joan. (Eds.). (1997). The assessment challenge in statistics education. Amsterdam: IOS Press and International Statistical Institute.
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Garfield, Joan (1994). Beyond testing and grading: Using assessment to improve student learning. Journal of Statistics Education, 2(1). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v2n1/garfield.html
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Garfield, Joan, & Gal, Iddo. (1999). Assessment and statistics education: Current challenges and directions. International Statistical Review, 67(1), 1-12.
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Konold, Clifford. (1995). Issues in assessing conceptual understanding in probability and statistics. Journal of Statistics Education, 3(1). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v3n1/konold.html
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Zawojewski, Judith S., & Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (2000). Data and chance. In Edward A. Silver & Patricia A. Kenney (Eds.), Results from the seventh mathematics assessment of the national assessment of educational progress (pp. 235-268). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
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Research on specific types of reasoning

Data

Ben-Zvi, Dani. (2004). Reasoning about data analysis. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 121-145). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Ben-Zvi, Dani, & Arcavi, Abraham. (2001). Junior high school students' construction of global views of data and data representations. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 45(1-3), 35-65.
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Hancock, Chris, Kaput, James J., & Goldsmith, Lynn T. (1992). Authentic inquiry with data: Critical barriers to classroom implementation. Educational Psychologist, 27(3), 337-364.
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Lehrer, Richard, & Romberg, Thomas. (1996). Exploring children's data modeling. Cognition and Instruction, 14(1), 69-108.
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Averages

Mokros, Jan, & Russell, Susan J. (1995). Children's concepts of average and representativeness. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26(1), 20-39.
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Konold, Clifford, & Pollatsek, Alexander. (2002). Data analysis as the search for signals in noisy processes. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 33(4), 259-289.
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Noss, Richard, Pozzi, Stefano, & Hoyles, Celia. (1999). Touching epistemologies: Meanings of average and variation in nursing practice. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 40, 25-51.
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Correlation and Covariation

Cobb, Paul, McClain, Kay, & Gravemeijer, Koeno. (2002). Learning about statistical covariation. Cognition and Instruction, 21(1), 1-78.
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Moritz, Jonathan (2004). Reasoning about covariation. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 227-255). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Ross, John A., & Cousins, J. Bradley. (1993). Patterns of student growth in reasoning about correlational problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(1), 49-65.
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Distribution and Graphs

Bakker, Arthur, & Gravemeijer, Koeno. (2004). Learning to reason about distribution. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 147-168). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Bakker, Arthur. (2004). Reasoning about shape as a pattern in variability. Statistics Education Research Journal, 3(2), 64-83.
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Curcio, Frances R. (1987). Comprehension of mathematical relationships expressed in graphs. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 18(5), 382-393.
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Friel, Susan N., Curcio, Frances R., & Bright, George W. (2001), Making sense of graphs: Critical factors influencing comprehension and instructional implications. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 32(2), 124-158.
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Variability

Gould, Rob. (2004).Variability: One statistician's view. Statistics Education Research Journal, 3(2), 7-16.
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Meletiou, Maria. (2002). Conceptions of variation: A literature review. Statistics Education Research Journal, 1(1), 46-52.
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Reading, Chris. (2004). Student description of variation while working with weather data. Statistics Education Research Journal, 3(2),84-105.
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Reading, Chris, & Shaughnessy, J. Michael. (2004). Reasoning about variation. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 201-226). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Sampling

Rubin, Andee, Bruce, Betram, & Tenney, Y. (1991). Learning about sampling: Trouble at the core of statistics. In David Vere-Jones (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Teaching Statistics, 1, 314-319). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
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Schwartz, Daniel L., Goldman, Susan R., Vye, Nancy J., & Barron, Brigid J. (1998). Aligning everyday and mathematical reasoning: The case of sampling assumptions. In Susanne P. Lajoie (Ed.), Reflections on statistics: Learning, teaching, and assessment in grades K-12 (pp. 233-273). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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Watson, Jane M. (2004). Developing reasoning about samples. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 277-294). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Watson, Jane M., & Moritz, Jonathan B. (2000). Developing concepts of sampling. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 31(1), 44-70.
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Sampling distributions

delMas, Robert C., Garfield, Joan, & Chance, Beth L. (1999). A model of classroom research in action: Developing simulation activities to improve students' statistical reasoning. Journal of Statistics Education, 7(3). Retrieved December 12, 2004 from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/secure/v7n3/delmas.cfm
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Chance, Beth, delMas Robert, & Garfield, Joan. (2004). Reasoning about sampling distributions. In Dani Ben-Zvi & Joan Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 295-323). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
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Inference

Watson, Jane M. (2002). Inferential reasoning and the influence of cognitive conflict. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 51, 225 - 256.
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Watson, Jane M., & Moritz, Jonathan B. (1999). The beginning of statistical inference: Comparing two data sets. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 37, 145-168.
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