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Estimation Principles

• Song: Confidence Level

A song that may be used in discussing the meaning and interpretation of the confidence level for a confidence interval. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of the Beatles 1965 hit song Can’t Buy Me Love, written by Paul McCartney. Also, an accompanying video may be found at

• Story: Damned Souls and Statistics

A short story that might be used as an out-of-class assignment to facilitate understanding the interpretation of a 95% confidence interval as a random interval that is expected to cover the true parameter in 95% of all samples. The story was written in 2011 by Canadian mathematician Robert Dawson from Saint Mary's University in Halifax Nova Scotia. The story was published as a two part series at www.Lablit.com
• Quote: Bardwick on uncertainty

A quote that might be used in a discussion of why uncertainty is greatest when the probability of success is close to 50% (and also amenable to more study). The quote is by American author and Professor of Psychiatry Judith M Bardwick (1933 - ) from her book Danger in the Comfort Zone (1995). The quote may also be found at www.quotationsbywomen.com
• Song: Every Assumption You Make

A song about the different assumptions needed for parametric statistical methods and the importance of checking how well they hold and what effect they may have on the results and conclusions. The lyrics were written in 2017 by Dennis K. Pearl from Penn State University and may be sung to the tune of "Every Breath You Take" written by Sting and made popular by The Police on their 1983 album "Synchronicity."
• Confidence Intervals for A Population Mean: Investigating the Normality Assumption

This is a youtube video by Jeremy Balka that was published in May 2013. The video presents a discussion of the assumptions when using the t distribution in constructing a confidence interval for the population mean. By considering various population distributions, the effect of different violations of the normality assumption is investigated through simulation.
• Elementary Statistics with R

This is an e-book tutorial for R. It is organized according to the topics usually taught in an Introductory Statistics course. Topics include: Qualitative Data; Quantitative Data; Numerical Measures; Probability Distributions; Interval Estimation; Hypothesis Testing; Type II Error; Inference about Two Populations; Goodness of Fit; Analysis of Variance; Non-parametric methods; Linear Regression; and Logistic Regression.
• How to Interpret a Confidence Interval for Mu

What is correct, what is incorrect, and why?
• Poem: Two Haikus on CLT

A poem consisting of two quasi Haikus that can used in discussing the Cramer-Rao lower bound on the variance of a normally distributed statistic. The poem was written by Ming-Lun Ho of Chabot College and was given a third place award in the 2015 A-mu-sing contest.
• Song: True Value

A song to be used in discussions about Confidence Intervals. The lyrics were written by Alan Reifman from Texas Tech University and may be sung to the tune of Cat Stevens 1971 hit "Moon Shadow." Musical accompaniment realization and vocals are by Joshua Lintz from University of Texas at El Paso.
• Poem: Scaffolding

"Scaffolding" is a poem by Scottish poet Eveline Pye from Glasgow Caledonin University. The poem was originally published in the September 2011 issue of the bimonthly magazine Significance, in an article about Eveline Pye's statistical poetry. "Scaffolding" might be used in course discussions of the importance of checking assumptions in the application of statistical methods or of the value of statistical sleuthing in discovering hidden relationships.