# Elementary Probability

• ### The Gambler's Ruin Problem

This applet allows you to experience the fate of a gambler by simulating the whole gambling session in a matter of seconds. The applet plots the successive rises and falls of the capital during the whole duration of the game. It also displays the maximum and minimum values attained by the capital during the session and allows you to get precise information (by clicking at a point of the histogram) of the amount of capital after that particular bet.
• ### Let's Make a Deal

This page has links to an explanation of the applet and to the applet itself. It is a simulation of the T.V. game show. There are three doors to choose from and after making a choice, one of the other doors is revealed. The player can choose to pick the other unopened door or stay with their original choice. Afterwards the statistics of previous contestants are shown. (Note: the applet statistics are inaccurate)
• ### Introduction to Cryptography: Games and Programs

This is a collection of applets including Let's Make A Deal, Let's Make a Deal II, Monkey Words, Entropy, Vigenere, Rectangular Transposition, and Monoalphabetic Substitution.
• ### Let's Make a Deal II

This applet doesn't have more explanation than - Let's Make a Deal II- An applet to demo at the UCLA conference. It has statistics for a number of tries at a time with choices for whether or not the host knows what is behind the door and whether or not the contestant switches doors after primary choice.
• ### Shannon's Experiment to Calculate the Entropy of English

The following applet allows you to simulate the Shannon experiment, an experiment aimed at determining the entropy of an English letter (the amount of information in bits that we obtain on the average when we learn one letter of English). The simulation will calculate the amount of entropy for you when you are finished guessing the letters.
• ### Breaking The Vigenere Encryption System

This applet is programmed to illustrate the code-breaking process using the Vigenere encryption as the code. The Vigenere encryption is broken by comparing histograms of various frequencies until the correct guess is obtained. A wrong guess for the period p leads to relatively flat histograms. The code breaker in this case repeats the analysis with a new trial period.
• ### Breaking The Rectangular Transposition Encryption System

This applet illustrates the codebreaking process entitled Rectangular Transposition Encryption System.
• ### Breaking A Monoalphabetic Encryption System Using a Known Plaintext Attack

This applet illustrates the codebreaking process using a chi-squared process.
• ### International Statistical Institute Glossary of Statistical Terms

This site shows the ISI's alphabetical list of technical terms in statistics showing the translation in a number of languages.
• ### Yale Statistical Topics

This site provides definitions and examples for the following topics: Graphical displays (stemplots, histograms, boxplots, scatterplots), Numerical Summaries (mean, median, quantiles, variance, standard deviation), Normal Distributions (assessing normality, normal probability plots), Categorical Data (two-way tables, bar graphs, segmented bar graphs), Linear regression (least-squares, residuals, outliers and influential observations, extrapolation), Correlation (correlation coefficient, rŒ_), Inference in Linear Regression (confidence intervals for intercept and slope, significance tests, mean response and prediction intervals), Multiple Linear Regression (confidence intervals, tests of significance, squared multiple correlation), ANOVA for Regression (analysis of variance calculations for simple and multiple regression, F statistics), Experimental Design (experimentation, control, randomization, replication), Sampling (simple, stratified, and multistage random sampling), Sampling in Statistical Inference (sampling distributions, bias, variability), Probability Models (components of probability models, basic rules of probability), Conditional Probability (probabilities of intersections of events, Bayes' formula), Random variables (discrete, continuous, density function), Mean and Variance of Random Variables (definitions, properties), Binomial Distributions (counts, proportions, normal approximation), Sample Means (mean, variance, distribution, Central Limit Theorem), Confidence Intervals (inference about population mean, z and t critical values), Tests of Significance (null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, matched pairs analysis), Comparison of Two Means (confidence intervals and significance tests, z and t statistics, pooled t procedures), Inference for Categorical Data (confidence intervals and significance tests for a single proportion, comparison of two proportions), Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test (chi-square test statistics, tests for discrete and continuous distributions), Two-Way tables and the Chi-Square test (categorical data analysis for two variables, tests of association).