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Elementary Probability

  • This tutorial introduces the basic concepts of probability using various examples. Topics include interpreting probability, calibration experiments, interpreting odds, sample space, basic rules, equally likely outcomes, constructing probability tables, unions and complements, mean, and two-way probability tables. A link to activities is also given.
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  • This page will calculate the factorial of any number.
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  • This page uses Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability of a hypothesis given a datum. An example about cancer is given to help users understand Bayes' Theorem and the calculator. Key Word: Conditional Probability.
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  • This page gives a history of notation and symbols and who developed them for combinatorial analysis, the normal distribution, probability, and statistics. Quotes from the first papers to use these symbols are also given.
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  • This tutorial opens with a survey on polling. Upon completing the survey, students are taken through an election example which uses polling to explain random sampling, bias, margin of error, and confidence intervals.
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  • Everyday we have specific routines we engage in. Many of these routines are tailored to preventing us from becoming victims of crime. We do things like lock our doors, watch where we walk at night, or avoid walking alone. We take these actions because at some level we are afraid of the possibility of being a victim of crime. Although we may not consciously think about it, these routines may be influenced by a variety of factors. What factors might make some individuals more afraid than others?

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  • This dataset comes from a study on 200 rats (100 of each gender) which were given one of 5 treatments, and then allowed to mate. At delivery, information on the pups was collected, and a sample of 8 pups (4 of each gender) was chosen from each litter. Body weights for these pups were recorded once a week for three weeks. Questions this study focused on refer to the safety of the treatments. A text file version of the data is found in the relation link.
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  • This dataset comes from a study on two treatment sequences (AB, BA) given to 14 healthy male volunteers randomly assigned to a two-period crossover design. Three pharmacokinetic variables were collected on the subjects at the end of each treatment period. Questions this study focused on refer to whether the treatments (A,B)are equivalent. A text file version of the data is found in the relation link.
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  • This dataset comes from a study on drug treatments of reflux disease patients. Twelve patients were assigned to a four period crossover design, and data on their disease symptoms were collected after treatment. Questions this study focused on refer to dosage of the drug. A text file version of the data is found in the relation link.
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  • This module discusses the probability of an event and relative frequency. The applet shows how empirical probability converges to theoretical probability as the sample size increases. The follow-up example includes an applet that simulates drawing differently colored balls from an urn.
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