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Elementary Probability

  • In this hands-on activity, students count the number of chips in cookies in order to carry out an independent samples t-test to see if Chips AhoyŒ¬ cookies have a higher, lower, or different mean number of chips per cookie than a supermarket brand. First there is a class discussion that can include concepts about random samples, independence of samples, recently covered tests, comparing two parameters with null and alternative hypotheses, what it means to be a chip in a cookie, how to break up the cookies to count chips, and of course a class consensus on the hypotheses to be tested. Second the students count the number of chips in a one cookie from each brand, and report their observations to the instructor. Third, the instructor develops the independent sample t-test statistic. Fourth, the students carry out (individually or as a class) the hypothesis test, checking the assumptions on sample-size/population-shape.
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  • In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind. A quote from French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) given at a lecture at University of Lille on December 7, 1854.

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  • Statistically Speaking is a 5 minute 35 second video that can be used in discussing various concepts in descriptive statistics. The video was written, directed, and produced by Cameron W. Hatch and the cast includes (order of appearance) Mala Grewal, Sally Atkinson, Griffin Hatch, Jeff Hatch, Matt Burnham, and Sylvia Burnham.

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  • A cartoon to teach about the family of t-distributions including their relationship to the normal distribution. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea and sketch from Sheila O. Weaver (University of Vermont). This is part of a three cartoon set that took first place in the cartoon category of the 2007 A-Mu-sing competition. Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.

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  • A cartoon for teaching about probability rules for disjoint events and how they do not apply to events that overlap. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Paul Rosile (Franklin County, Ohio Board of Health). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
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  • A cartoon to teach about proper reporting of statistical results such as conclusions from a significance test. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
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  • This lecture example discusses calculating chance with probabilities (a ratio of occurrence to the whole) or odds (a ratio of occurrence to nonoccurrence). It presents a clinical example of measuring the chance of initiating breastfeeding among 1000 new mothers. Tables are provided in pdf format.
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  • This page discusses the proper procedures for multiple comparison tests and reasons behind them.
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  • This text based website provides an explanation of some coincidences that are often discussed. It gives an explanation of the birthday problem along with a graphic display of the probability of birthday matches vs. the number of people included. It also discussess other popular coincidences such as the similarities between John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln. It goes on to discuss steaks of heads and tails along with random features of stocks and the stock market prices.
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  • This tutorial explains the theory and use of two-way ANOVA and demonstrates it with an example on final exam scores. Data is given as well as SPSS and Minitab code.
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