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# Elementary Probability

• ### Cartoon: Statistical Qualifications

A cartoon to teach about proper reporting of statistical results such as conclusions from a significance test. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
• ### Primer on Probability, Odds and Interpreting their Ratios

This lecture example discusses calculating chance with probabilities (a ratio of occurrence to the whole) or odds (a ratio of occurrence to nonoccurrence). It presents a clinical example of measuring the chance of initiating breastfeeding among 1000 new mothers. Tables are provided in pdf format.
• ### Why Use Multiple Comparison Tests?

This page discusses the proper procedures for multiple comparison tests and reasons behind them.
• ### Coincidences: Remarkable or Random?

This text based website provides an explanation of some coincidences that are often discussed. It gives an explanation of the birthday problem along with a graphic display of the probability of birthday matches vs. the number of people included. It also discussess other popular coincidences such as the similarities between John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln. It goes on to discuss steaks of heads and tails along with random features of stocks and the stock market prices.
• ### Two-Way Analysis of Variance

This tutorial explains the theory and use of two-way ANOVA and demonstrates it with an example on final exam scores. Data is given as well as SPSS and Minitab code.
• ### An Introduction to Probability

This tutorial introduces the basic concepts of probability using various examples. Topics include interpreting probability, calibration experiments, interpreting odds, sample space, basic rules, equally likely outcomes, constructing probability tables, unions and complements, mean, and two-way probability tables. A link to activities is also given.