# Tutorial

• ### Quote: Durand on Degrees of Freedom

The number of degrees of freedom is usually self-evident - except for the analysis of data that have not appeared in a textbook. A quote from M.I.T. professor of management David Durand (1912- 1996) Published in a letter to the editor of "The American Statistician" June, 1970 as part of a tongue-in-cheek "Dictionary for Statismagicians." The quote also appears in "Statistically Speaking: A dictionary of quotations" compiled by Carl Gaither and Alma Cavazos-Gaither.
• ### Friedman's Test

This tutorial on Friedman's Test includes its definition, assumptions, characteristics, and hypotheses. An example using output from the WINKS software is given, but those without the software can still use the tutorial. An exercise is given at the end that can be done with any statistical software package.
• ### Index to Statistics Tutorials

This collection of tutorials covers many statistical applications such as Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Simple Linear Regression, One and Two Sample t-tests, Paired t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Friedman's Test, Interpreting p-values, Comparing two groups, Parametric and Nonparametric analyses, and Multiple Comparisons. The tutorials refer to the WINKS statistical software program, but they are useful for those who do not have access to WINKS.
• ### Analysis Tool: Statistics Explained

This site contains 100 modules designed to introduce concepts in statistics. The modules are divided into categories such as Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics, Related Measures, Enumeration Statistics, and ANOVA. Click the green button on the side to start the modules, then click "Main Menu" at the top to see a list of topics. Topics include Describing Numbers, Normal Curve, Sampling Distributions, Hypothesis Testing, Regression, and Chi-Square. The site also includes a glossary, statistical tables and simulations, and a personalized progress report. Key Words: Collection; Central Tendency; Spread; Correlation.
• ### Quote: Hailey on Statistics

Legal proceedings are like statistics. If you manipulate them, you can prove anything. A quote by Bristish-born Canadian novelist Arthur Hailey (1920 - 2004). The quote is found in the novel "Airpot" (1968; Doubleday, p. 385). The quote also appears in "Statistically Speaking: A dictionary of quotations" compiled by Carl Gaither and Alma Cavazos-Gaither.
• ### **National Library of Virtual Manipulatives: Box Plot

An interactive box plot applet that allows users to put in their own data that is part of a large collection of platform independent, interactive, java applets and activities for K-12 mathematics and teacher education.
• ### Song: I Will Find U

Song about the use of the Mann-Whitney U statistic (also known as the two sample Wilcoxon statistic). May be sung to the tune of "I Will Find You" by Peter Hammill; Fie Records, 1991. The audio was produced by Nicolas Acedo and sung by Jorge Baylon, both students in the University of Texas at El Paso Commercial Music Program.

• ### Coincidences: Remarkable or Random?

This text based website provides an explanation of some coincidences that are often discussed. It gives an explanation of the birthday problem along with a graphic display of the probability of birthday matches vs. the number of people included. It also discussess other popular coincidences such as the similarities between John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln. It goes on to discuss steaks of heads and tails along with random features of stocks and the stock market prices.
• ### Standard Errors and The Central Limit Theorm

This lesson introduces the Central Limit Theorem and discusses it in terms of the normal distribution, binomial distribution, and Poisson distribution.
• ### Confidence Limits

This lesson introduces confidence intervals and how to calculate them. A multiple choice test is given at the end.