Literature Index

Displaying 31 - 40 of 3326
  • Author(s):
    Farnsworth, D. L
    Editors:
    Goodall, G.
    Year:
    2001
    Abstract:
    A homework assignment led to the observation that the Cox and Stuart test is not symmetric under the transposition of the two variables. Examples of this feature are presented.
  • Author(s):
    Lecoutre, B., Lecoutre, M.-P., & Grouin, J.-M.
    Year:
    2001
    Abstract:
    The use of frequentist Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) is so<br>an integral part of scientists' behavior that its uses cannot be discontinued<br>by flinging it out of the window. Faced with this situation, our teaching<br>strategy involves a smooth transition towards the Bayesian paradigm. Its<br>general outlines are as follows. (1) To present natural Bayesian interpretations<br>of NHST outcomes to draw attention to their shortcomings. (2) To create<br>as a result of this the need for a change of emphasis in the presentation and<br>interpretation of results. (3) Finally to equip students with a real possibility of<br>thinking sensibly about statistical inference problems and behaving in a more<br>reasonable manner. Our conclusion is that teaching the Bayesian approach in<br>the context of experimental data analysis appears both desirable and feasible.
  • Author(s):
    Bart K. Holland
    Year:
    2007
    Abstract:
    This article describes a classroom demonstration that may be used to encourage students' development and understanding of the idea of hypothesis testing.
  • Author(s):
    Gourgey, A. F.
    Year:
    2000
    Abstract:
    Sampling distributions are central to understanding statistical inference, yet they are one of the most difficult concepts for introductory statistics students. Although hands-on teaching methods are preferred, finding the right balance between theory and practical experience has not been easy. Simulation activities have not always captured the research situations that statisticians work with. This paper describes a method developed by the author to teach sampling distributions using a collaborative learning simulation based on political polling. Anecdotally, students found the polling scenario easy to understand, interesting, and enjoyable, and they were able to explain the meaning of sample results and inferences about the population. Sample examination questions are included, with examples of students' responses that suggest that the method helped them to understand sampling error and its role in statistical inference.
  • Author(s):
    Falk, R.
    Year:
    1992
    Abstract:
    The "problem of three prisoners", a counterintuitive teaser, is analyzed. It is representative of a class of probability puzzles where the correct solution depends on explication of underlying assumptions. Spontaneous beliefs concerning the problem and intuitive heuristics are reviewed. The psychological background of these beliefs is explored. Several attempts to find a simple criterion to predict whether and how the probability of the target event will change as a result of obtaining evidence are examined. However, despite the psychological appeal of these attempts, none proves to be valid in general. A necessary and sufficient condition for change in the probability of the target event, following observation of new data, is proposed. That criterion is an extension of the likelihood-ratio principle (which holds in the case of only two complementary alternatives) to any number of alternatives. Some didactic implications concerning the significance of the chance set-up and reliance on analogies are discussed.
  • Author(s):
    Maxwell, N. P.
    Year:
    1994
    Abstract:
    The p-value can be introduced with a coin flipping exercise. The instructor flips a coin ten times and has a student call each flip. The students record their thoughts after each flip. The instructor reports that the caller calls every flip correctly. In this exercise students intuitively reject a null hypothesis because the p-value is too small. Students are reassured to learn from this concrete example that they intuitively followed the logic of statistical inference before they studied statistics.
  • Author(s):
    Deshpande, M. N. &amp; Welukar, R. M.
    Editors:
    Goodall, G.
    Year:
    2006
    Abstract:
    This article develops nineteen distributions from a simple coin-tossing experiment.
  • Author(s):
    Lovett, M.
    Editors:
    Klahr, D., &amp; Carver, S.
    Abstract:
    This chapter focuses on the problem of improving young adults' statistical reasoning skils, with particular emphasis on transfer outside the original learning context.
  • Author(s):
    Lin, Y.
    Year:
    1992
    Abstract:
    In this paper, some difficulties of learning of the students, in the environment of a small liberal arts college, are listed.
  • Author(s):
    Ortiz, E., &amp; MacGregor, S. K.
    Year:
    1988
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were significant differences in understanding the concept of variable and in attitudes toward mathematics among sixth-grade students (n=89) who use a Logo graphics approach, students who used a textbook-based approach, and students who received no instruction on the concept of variable. The Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT), Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS), and Robustness Semantic Differential (RSD) were administered as pretreatment measures. The Understanding of the Concept of Variable Instrument (UCVI) was administered immediately and three weeks after the experiment ceased. Although the results indicated there was no significant difference between computer and textbook-based groups with respect to understanding the concept of variable immediately after treatment, there was a significant difference (p &lt; .01) between the two groups with respect to long-term retention (three weeks after treatment ceased). There were significant positive correlations between CTBS and TOLT scores and UCVI scores.

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