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Testing

  • Old statisticians never die - they just become nonsignificant.

    Gary C. Ramseyer (1934 - 2012)

  • The great tragedy of Science - the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact.

    Thomas H. Huxley (1825 - 1895)

  • It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist to discard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast. It keeps him young.

    Konrad Lorenz (1903 - 1989)

  • The number of degrees of freedom is usually self-evident - except for the analysis of data that have not appeared in a textbook.

    David Durand (1912 - 1996).

  • Lyric copyright by Bret Larget
    May be sung to the tune of "Roll out the Barrel" (Lew Brown, Wladimir A. Timm, Vasek Zeman and Jaromir Vejvoda)

    What's a p-value?
    Test a hypothesis and see.
    What's a p-value?
    It is the probability,
    That a new test statistic,
    Would be at least as extreme as the old,
    Given Ho is true.
    That is what I'm told!

  • Lyric copyright by Jeff Witmer
    may sing to tune of "Let it Be" (Paul McCartney/Beatles)

    When I find myself with normal data,
    William Gosset comes to me
    Speaking words of wisdom, Use a t.

    If my NP plot is linear
    but sigma isn't known to me
    This is not a problem, Use a t.

    Use a t, use a t, use a t, use a t
    Student knows the answer: Use a t.

    And when the broken hearted students
    in a stats class can't agree
    You can show the answer: Use a t.

    Some want to use a Z test,
    and a chi-square is a mystery
    The truth is very simple: Use a t

    Use a t, use a t, use a t, use a t
    Student knows the answer: Use a t.

    And when your thoughts are cloudy,
    RA Fisher may not hear your plea
    But Gosset will deliver, with a t.

    He knows you are trying
    and he wants to set your mind at ease
    Don't think twice about it, use a t.

    Use a t, use a t, use a t, use a t
    Student knows the answer: Use a t.

  • Lyric copyright by Gary Cziko
    may sing to tune of "Mr. Bojangles" (Jerry Jeff Walker)

    Well, I didn't think I'd ever like statistics,
    and I don't know why.
    But I had to take it sometime soon to graduate,
    so I gave it a try.
    And I've changed my mind, yes I've changed my mind,
    'cause it's clear to me now,
    Hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing is fun!

    Oh, you state your null hypothesis and don't forget,
    your alternative one, too.
    It may be directional that means it has one tail,
    but usually two.
    You decide on alpha, oh, don't forget alpha,
    to control errors Type I and II.
    Hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing is fun!

    Then compute your z or t or F or chi-square,
    and compare it to the table.
    To decide the fate of your own null hypothesis,
    you reject it if you're able.
    If you're lucky you reject it, don't try to accept it,
    it's not logical to do.
    Hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing is fun!

    So statistics really can be quite enjoyable,
    if you study all along.
    And I want to world to know about the joy I've found,
    so I wrote this song.
    And I hope you'll sing it, yes hope you'll sing it,
    in a voice clear and strong.
    Hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing, hypothesis testing is fun!

  • Lyric ©2005 Lawrence Mark Lesser;
    May sing to tune of "Row, Row, Row Your Boat"

    It is key to know
    What p-value means --

    It's the chance
    (with the null)
    you obtain
    data that's

    At least that extreme!

  • Lyric copyright by Kate McFarland
    may sing to tune of "I Will Find You" (Peter Hammill)

    Trapped by your habit when you must compare,
    Two-sample t-tests that blind you
    I have a better way;
    each observation pair,
    I'll assess, greater/less; I will find U.

    (For) independent samples X and Y,
    Mann-Whitney's test, I'll remind you,
    Is so simple--add a half for every tie,
    Else just sum, naughts and ones, and you'll find U.

    Far away in a normal test
    You'll find you don't have so much freedom;
    Don't run away to a normal test.

    Don't be afraid should it be unknown
    What distribution's before you.
    Don't be afraid (with) symmetry alone,
    Lose no more, (than) point-one-four, if you find U.

    Far away in a normal test
    Things cannot be much more efficient;
    Don't run away to a normal test...

    Trapped by your habit when you must compare,
    Two-sample t-tests that blind you
    I have a better way;
    each observation pair,
    I'll assess, greater/less; I will find U.

  • Lyric copyright ©2006 by Lawrence Mark Lesser
    may be sung to the tune of "Aquarius" (James Rado, Gerome Ragni, Galt MacDermot)

    When you have qualitative data
    And you need to test goodness of fit
    Or do a test of independence,
    Then this fine tool is it!
    This is the dawning of the age of chi-square for us,
    Age of chi-square for us,
    Chi-square for us!
    Chi-square for us!

    It's the oldest test we use now--
    In nineteen-hundred, Pearson showed us how
    Reasoning with simple rat'os
    yield expected frequencies that go in formula summation
    note degrees of libera-ation:
    chi-square for us, Chi-square for us!

    (repeat first section)

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