# P-value

• ### Song: Statistically Significant

A song to aid in discussing the interpretation of statistical significance as being unlikely to happen by chances computed under the null. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of the “Star Spangled Banner.” Also, an accompanying video may be found at

• ### Song: P-Value is Low

A song to be used in discussing the idea that a low P-value indicates that the null hypothesis is a poor explanation of the data. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of the 1952 song “Hound Dog,” written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and recorded by Willie Mae Thorton and later popularized by Elvis Presley. Also, an accompanying video may be found at

• ### Song: Definition of P-Value

A song that may be used in discussing the definition and interpretation of the P-Value in significance testing. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of Van Morrison’s 1967 classic rock song BlBrown Eyed Girl. Also, an accompanying video may be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmQvXhN7Exc statistical topic: Significance Testing Principles – P-value

• ### Cartoon: P-value Interpretations

A cartoon suitable for use in discussing the interpretation of p-values of different levels. The cartoon is number 1478 (January, 2015) from the webcomic series at xkcd.com created by Randall Munroe. Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites under a creative commons attribution-non-commercial 2.5 license.

• ### Game: Statistically Grounded

A game to aid in the active learning of significance testing including power and the limitations of p-values. Statistically Grounded is an on-line game that introduces multivariate issues in a simplified game environment. Students are asked to serve as a consultant for their friend, Joe. Joe is starting his own coffee company and students help him design a study to determine whether factors, such as location, time of day, price, type of music, or some combination of these influence sales. The on-line game allows students to design a study, sample data, and make suggestions on how Joe's business should be run. The game then simulates several months of business based on student's suggestions. The goal is to design a plan that will earn the most sales and make the largest amount of profits. The TigetSTAT labs handouts were created by Rod Sturdivant (Ohio State University) and John Jackson (West Point) as part of the Stat2Labs collection at Grinnell College
• ### Video: The P-value Song

A song about the various cautions that go with interpreting the P-value especially the large sample caution, a strict reliance on the 5% significance level, and errors in interpreting results as proof of a hypothesis. The song and musical arrangements in the video were written by Michael Greenacre of Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona and may be sung to the tune of Irving Berlin's "There's no business like show business." The lyrics were sung by Gurdeep Stephens in the recording. The video took second place in the 2015 A-mu-sing contest.
• ### Poem: The Hippopotamus and His Hypothesis

A poem useful in teaching aspects about hypothesis testing, especially the caveat that unimportant differences may be deemed significant with a large sample size. The poem was written by Mariam Hermiz, a student at University of Toronto, Mississauga in Fall 2010 as part of an assignment in a biometrics class taught by Helene Wagner. The poem was awarded first place in the poetry category of the 2011 CAUSE A-Mu-sing contest.

• ### Poem: Rejection Detection

Rejection Detection is a poem by Patricia McCann of Franklin University. It may be used in teaching about p-values in hypothesis testing.

• ### Video: Oops! ... I Picked The Wrong Test

Oops! ... I Picked the Wrong Test is a 4 minute, 12 second video that provides a fun review of common mistakes made in conducting hypothesis tests. The video was first sung for students in a Psychology class at the University of Oregon. The singer is Jennifer Simonds, Ph.D. of Westminster College in Salt Lake City Utah (where the video was filmed). The song is a parody of "Oops ... I did it again" by Britney Spears (2000). Characters: Britney Spearman - Jennifer Simonds, Chuck - Chuck Tate, Frustrated Professor - Bill Bynum, Dancers - Cressa Perloff (dance captain), Kathleen Ware, and Mariah Mercer. Credits: Lyrics, vocals, directions, and production by Jennifer Simonds; Recording and Sound Engineering by Ted Sablay; Final Cut Consulting by Zelda Randazzo; Audio Sync Assistance by Lizzie Randazzo; Camera Work and Props by Amy Fairchild. This video won the overall Grand Prize in the 2009 CAUSE A-Mu-sing contest.

• ### Poem: Three Haikus

These three haikus were written as part of an activity in Paul Roback's introductory statistics class at St. Olaf College in February, 2009 ("World of chaos" by Carolyn Raitt; "Reality bites" by Hannah Johnson; "Is it you or me" by Nicole Villa). As a collection, the haikus won first place in the poetry category of the 2009 A-Mu-sing competition. The entire class is shown in this picture: http://www.causeweb.org/resources/fun/pics/Roback_class.jpg