# P-value

• ### Song: Statistically Significant

A song to aid in discussing the interpretation of statistical significance as being unlikely to happen by chances computed under the null. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of the “Star Spangled Banner.” Also, an accompanying video may be found at

• ### Song: P-Value is Low

A song to be used in discussing the idea that a low P-value indicates that the null hypothesis is a poor explanation of the data. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of the 1952 song “Hound Dog,” written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and recorded by Willie Mae Thorton and later popularized by Elvis Presley. Also, an accompanying video may be found at

• ### Song: Definition of P-Value

A song that may be used in discussing the definition and interpretation of the P-Value in significance testing. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of Van Morrison’s 1967 classic rock song BlBrown Eyed Girl. Also, an accompanying video may be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmQvXhN7Exc

statistical topic: Significance Testing Principles – P-value

• ### Cartoon: P-value Interpretations

A cartoon suitable for use in discussing the interpretation of p-values of different levels. The cartoon is number 1478 from the webcomic series at xkcd.com created by Randall Munroe. Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites under a creative commons attribution-non-commercial 2.5 license.
• ### Game: Statistically Grounded

A game to aid in the active learning of significance testing including power and the limitations of p-values. Statistically Grounded is an on-line game that introduces multivariate issues in a simplified game environment. Students are asked to serve as a consultant for their friend, Joe. Joe is starting his own coffee company and students help him design a study to determine whether factors, such as location, time of day, price, type of music, or some combination of these influence sales. The on-line game allows students to design a study, sample data, and make suggestions on how Joe's business should be run. The game then simulates several months of business based on student's suggestions. The goal is to design a plan that will earn the most sales and make the largest amount of profits. The TigetSTAT labs handouts were created by Rod Sturdivant (Ohio State University) and John Jackson (West Point) as part of the Stat2Labs collection at Grinnell College
• ### Video: The P-value Song

A song about the various cautions that go with interpreting the P-value especially the large sample caution, a strict reliance on the 5% significance level, and errors in interpreting results as proof of a hypothesis. The song and musical arrangements in the video were written by Michael Greenacre of Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona and may be sung to the tune of Irving Berlin's "There's no business like show business." The lyrics were sung by Gurdeep Stephens in the recording. The video took second place in the 2015 A-mu-sing contest.
• ### Webinar: Teaching to the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE)

Webinar presented September 12, 2006 by Brian Jersky, St. Mary's College, and Robert Gould, UCLA, and hosted by Jackie Miller, The Ohio State University. This webinar discusses resources available to educators to assist them in crafting lesson plans that meet the GAISE. The presenters briefly explain the GAISE, which were endorsed by the American Statistical Association and also the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and demonstrate various resources offered through CAUSEweb and other channels.
• ### Poem: Rejection Detection

Rejection Detection is a poem by Patricia McCann of Franklin University. It may be used in teaching about p-values in hypothesis testing.
• ### Puzzle: Why the mean dog crossed the median

A statistics scramble that might be used in teaching about the relationship between the mean and the median in a skewed distribution. A set of five anagrams must be solved to reveal the letters that provide the answer to the clue in the cartoon. The cartoon was drawn by British cartoonist John Landers based on an idea by Dennis Pearl. Free for use on course websites, or as an in-class, or out-of class exercise.
• ### Video: Oops! ... I Picked The Wrong Test

Oops! ... I Picked the Wrong Test is a 4 minute, 12 second video that provides a fun review of common mistakes made in conducting hypothesis tests. The video was first sung for students in a Psychology class at the University of Oregon. The singer is Jennifer Simonds, Ph.D. of Westminster College in Salt Lake City Utah (where the video was filmed). The song is a parody of "Oops ... I did it again" by Britney Spears (2000). Characters: Britney Spearman - Jennifer Simonds, Chuck - Chuck Tate, Frustrated Professor - Bill Bynum, Dancers - Cressa Perloff (dance captain), Kathleen Ware, and Mariah Mercer. Credits: Lyrics, vocals, directions, and production by Jennifer Simonds; Recording and Sound Engineering by Ted Sablay; Final Cut Consulting by Zelda Randazzo; Audio Sync Assistance by Lizzie Randazzo; Camera Work and Props by Amy Fairchild. This video won the overall Grand Prize in the 2009 CAUSE A-Mu-sing contest.