Power

  • This topic from an online textbook discusses standard error, confidence interval, and significance testing for a difference in percentages or proportions. It also covers paired alternatives and standard error of a total. Exercises and answers are also provided.
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  • This applet performs a hypothesis test for the mean of a single normal population, variance known. Users set the hypothesized mean, true mean, variance, and appropriate alternative hypothesis. The applet plots a representative distribution under the given values with power shaded in blue and significance level shaded in red.
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  • This webpage uses the criminal trials in the US Justice system to illustrate hypothesis testing, type I error, and type II error. An applet allows the user to examine the probability of type I errors and type II errors under various conditions. An applet allows users to visualize p-values and the power of a test. Keywords: type I error, type II error, type one error, type two error, type 1 error, type 2 error
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  • This lesson plan uses the Birthday Paradox to introduce basic concepts of probability. Students run a Monte Carlo simulation using the TI-83 graphing calculator to generate random dates, and then search for matching pairs. Students also perform a graphical analysis of the birthday-problem function. Key Words: Permutations; Explicit Function; Recursive Function; Modeling.
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  • This applet allows the user to simulate a race where the results are based on the roll of a die. For each outcome of the die, the user chooses which player moves forward. Then that car moves forward the given number of spaces. Users can experiment with the race by determining which player will win more often based on the rules that they specify.
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  • This article describes an interactive activity illustrating general properties of hypothesis testing and hypothesis tests for proportions. Students generate, collect, and analyze data. Through simulation, students explore hypothesis testing concepts. Concepts illustrated are: interpretation of p-values, type I error rate, type II error rate, power, and the relationship between type I and type II error rates and power. This activity is appropriate for use in an introductory college or high school statistics course. Key words: hypothesis test on a proportion, type I and II errors, power, p-values, simulation
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  • Currently requires user to log in to the site and register. I am waiting to see if there is an easier way, and if not, can I give out the username and password. Update 5/10/05: They said they would not feel comfortable giving this out.
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  • Whatever you can see on your screen, SnagIt will easily capture for your immediate use. Once you've taken your capture, SnagIt lets you edit, enhance, save, and use the capture for numerous tasks.
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  • The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning. Key words: bar charts, Caesar Shift, encryption, testing hypotheses
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  • This group activity illustrates the concepts of size and power of a test through simulation. Students simulate binomial data by repeatedly rolling a ten-sided die, and they use their simulated data to estimate the size of a binomial test. They carry out further simulations to estimate the power of the test. After pooling their data with that of other groups, they construct a power curve. A theoretical power curve is also constructed, and the students discuss why there are differences between the expected and estimated curves. Key words: Power, size, hypothesis testing, binomial distribution
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