# Correlation

• ### Puzzle: Why the designer's dress was significant

A statistics scramble that might be used in teaching goodness-of-fit significance tests. A set of five anagrams must be solved to reveal the letters that provide the answer to the clue in the cartoon. The cartoon was drawn by British cartoonist John Landers based on an idea by Dennis Pearl. Free for use on course websites, or as an in-class, or out-of class exercise.

• ### Song: Fitting the Line

A song for teaching concepts about regression and correlation written by Alan Reifman, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University. The lyrics may be sung to the tune of Tommy James and Bod King's 1971 song "Draggin' the Line." Musical accompaniment realization and vocals are by Joshua Lintz from University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Poem: Negative Correlation

Negative Correlation is a poem by Maarten Manhoff (1972 - ); the pen name for Ernst Wit of Lancaster University in the United Kingdom. The poem was written in 2003.

• ### Cartoon: The Government Plot

A cartoon that might be used in introducing scatterplots and correlation. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
• ### Quote: Gould on Correlation and Causation

The invalid assumption that correlation implies cause is probably among the two or three most serious and common errors of human reasoning is a quote by American evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941 - 2002). The quote is found in Gould's book "The Mismeasure of Man" ( 2nd edition, p.242, W.W. Norton Publishing, 1996).

• ### Using Your Hair to Understand Descriptive Statistics

The purpose of this activity is to enhance students' understanding of various descriptive measures. In particular, by completing this hands-on activity students will experience a visual interpretation of a mean, median, outlier, and the concept of distance-to-mean.
• ### *Correlation Guessing Game

In this game activity, students match correlation values with plots generated by the applet. Competition in this game setting encourages students to become more involved in the classroom and attainment of learning objectives. This game is best if used in a lab setting, although it may be modified to fit other classroom situations.
• ### *Influence of Outliers on Correlation

This activity begins with an instructor demonstration followed by a student out-of-class assignment. Students will observe their instructor create a scatterplot and observe how the correlation coefficient changes when outlier points are added. Students are then given a follow up assignment, which guides them through the applet. In addition, the assignment provides insight about outliers and their effect on correlation. This activity will show exactly how outliers numerically change the correlation coefficient value and to what degree.
• ### Quote: Bleckley on What is Probable

Indeed, it is always probable that something improbable will happen. A quote by American lawyer and Georgia Supreme Court jurist Logan Edwin Bleckley (1827 - 1907) written in his opinion in the case of Warren v. Purtell in 1879. The quote also appears in "Statistically Speaking: A dictionary of quotations" compiled by Carl Gaither and Alma Cavazos-Gaither.

• ### Quote: Cohen on Theory vs Fact

The facts that we dislike we call theories; the theories that we cherish we call facts. a quote from American legal scholar Felix Solomon Cohen (1907 - 1953) in his paper "Field Theory and Judicial Logic" published in the "Yale Law Journal" (vol. 59, 1950 pages 238-272).