# Assumptions

• ### Joke: The commitment ceremony

A joke to teach the meaning of "significance" written in 2011 by University of Texas at El Paso professor of Mathematical Sciences, Lawrence Mark Lesser (1964-).

This hour long radio podcast focuses on stochasticity, or randomness. According the website: "Stochasticity (a wonderfully slippery and smarty-pants word for randomness), may be at the very foundation of our lives. To understand how big a role it plays, we look at chance and patterns in sports, lottery tickets, and even the cells in our own body. Along the way, we talk to a woman suddenly consumed by a frenzied gambling addiction, meet two friends whose meeting seems to defy pure chance, and take a close look at some very noisy bacteria." Several guests appear in this radio podcast, including Deborah Nolan.

• ### Video: Correlation and Causation

This 6 minute 39 second video can be used to teach the difference between correlation and causation. For example, that a relationship between X and Y might be explained by X causing Y, Y causing X, or a third factor that drives them both. The video is episode #109 (Nov 10, 2009) in the Psych Files podcast series produced and hosted by Michael A. Britt, Ph.D. at www.thepsychfiles.com. Video is free to use in the classroom or on course websites under a non-commercial ShareAlike creative commons license.

• ### Cartoon: Conditional Risk

A cartoon suitable for use in teaching ideas about independence and conditional probability. The cartoon is number 795 (September, 2010) from the webcomic series at xkcd.com created by Randall Munroe. Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites under a creative commons attribution-non-commercial 2.5 license.

• ### Confronting Some Statistical Inference Misconceptions

This lesson poses a series of questions designed to challenge students' possible misconceptions of statistical inference and hypothesis testing. The lesson uses the statistical software, Fathom, and three datasets with information on the number of chips per canister distributed by a snack maker. The data can found at the relation address below.