Assumptions

• Joke: Another Light Bulb

A light bulb joke that can be used in discussing how the choice of model might affect the conclusions drawn.  The joke was submitted to AmStat News by Robert Weiss from UCLA and appeared on page 48 of the October, 2018 edition.

• HyperStat Online: Ch. 9 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing

This chapter explains the structure/steps of hypothesis testing, the concept of significance, the relationship between confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, and Type I/II errors.

• HyperStat Online: Ch. 10 Testing Hypotheses with Standard Errors

This text explains the differences between t-tests, z-tests, tests with proportions, and tests of correlation.

• Testing Assumptions: Normality & Equal Variances

Document (pdf) illustrating a test of normality using an Anderson-Darling test in MINITAB and a test of equality of variances with an F-test in EXCEL.
• Song: Every Assumption You Make

A song about the different assumptions needed for parametric statistical methods and the importance of checking how well they hold and what effect they may have on the results and conclusions. The lyrics were written in 2017 by Dennis K. Pearl from Penn State University and may be sung to the tune of "Every Breath You Take" written by Sting and made popular by The Police on their 1983 album "Synchronicity." Audio of the parody was produced and sung by students in the commercial music program of The University of Teas at El Paso.

• Poem: Scaffolding

"Scaffolding" is a poem by Scottish poet Eveline Pye from Glasgow Caledonin University. The poem was originally published in the September 2011 issue of the bimonthly magazine Significance, in an article about Eveline Pye's statistical poetry. "Scaffolding" might be used in course discussions of the importance of checking assumptions in the application of statistical methods or of the value of statistical sleuthing in discovering hidden relationships.
• Quote: Shaw on Assumptions

Even trained statisticians often fail to appreciate the extent to which statistics are vitiated by the unrecorded assumptions of their interpreters is a quote by Irish playwright George Benard Shaw (1856 - 1950). The quote may be found in the author's preface to his 1906 play "The Doctor's Dilemma", that contains an essay on his views of statistics and quantitative literacy amongst the public.

• Song: A Sample that's Skewed

A song about examining the assumptions in statistical procedures especially dealing with skewed distributions. The lyrics were written by Robert Carver of Stonehill College and were awarded second place in the song category of the 2011 CAUSE A-Mu-sing competition. The song is a parody of the 1961 classic pop song "Runaround Sue" written by Ernie Maresca and Dion DiMucci and sung by Dion backed by the vocal group, The Del-Satins. Musical accompaniment realization and vocals are by Joshua Lintz from University of Texas at El Paso.

• Song: If Only P were greater

A song for teaching ideas about hypothesis testing including interpretation of significance and the difference between significance and practical relevance. Lyrics written by Denise Tran, a student at University of Toronto, Mississauga in Fall 2010 as part of an assignment in a biometrics class taught by Helene Wagner. May be sung to the tune of the 2001 Grammy award winning song "Drops of Jupiter (Tell Me)" by the rock band Train (Patrick Monahan, Robert Hotchkiss, James Stafford, Scott Underwood, and Charlie Colin). The song won first place in the song category and best overall entry in the 2011 CAUSE A-Mu-sing competition.

• Quote: Ford on chance

There is no such thing as no chance is a quote by American businessman and founder of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford (1863-1947). The quote is from a speech given to the 1930 class of students at Edison Laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. It is referred to on page 14 of the 1930 book "American Florist".