# Simulation

• ### Data Collection: The Pew Research Center For The People & The Press data archive

The Pew Research Center For The People & The Press data archive page contains links to downloadable versions of the Center's survey data which are currently available on the web. Survey data are released six months after the reports are issued and are posted on the web as quickly as possible.
• ### JFreeReport

JFreeReport is a free Java report library. It has the following features: full on-screen print preview; data obtained via Swing's TableModel interface (making it easy to print data directly from your application); XML-based report definitions; output to the screen, printer or various export formats (PDF, HTML, CSV, Excel, plain text); support for servlets (uses the JFreeReport extensions) complete source code included (subject to the GNU Lesser General Public Licence); extensive source code documentation.

• ### Star Library: Histogram Sorting

This activity provides students with 24 histograms representing distributions with differing shapes and characteristics. By sorting the histograms into piles that seem to go together, and by describing those piles, students develop awareness of the different versions of particular shapes (e.g., different types of skewed distributions, or different types of normal distributions), that not all histograms are easy to classify, that there is a difference between models (normal, uniform) and characteristics (skewness, symmetry, etc.). Key words: Histogram, shape, normal, uniform, skewed, symmetric, bimodal
• ### Analysis Tool: Linear Regression Applet

This applet allows a person to add up to 50 points onto its green viewing screen. After each point is added by clicking on the screen with the mouse, a red line will appear. This red line represents a line passing through (Average x, Average y) with a slope that can be altered by clicking the Left or Right buttons. The slope of this line may also be changed by dragging the mouse either right or left. By clicking on Show Best Fit, a blue best fit line will be calculated by the computer.

• ### Star Library: What is the Significance of a Kiss?

This article describes an interactive activity illustrating general properties of hypothesis testing and hypothesis tests for proportions. Students generate, collect, and analyze data. Through simulation, students explore hypothesis testing concepts. Concepts illustrated are: interpretation of p-values, type I error rate, type II error rate, power, and the relationship between type I and type II error rates and power. This activity is appropriate for use in an introductory college or high school statistics course. Key words: hypothesis test on a proportion, type I and II errors, power, p-values, simulation
• ### Buffon's Needle Analysis and Simulation

Gives some background on the Buffon needle problem. Has a link to an applet that allows one to simulate dropping a needle1, 10, 100, or 1000 times. One also has control over the length of the needle.

• ### The Cereal Box Problem: A lesson in expected value

Poses the following problem: Suppose there was one of six prizes inside your favorite box of cereal. Perhaps it's a pen, a plastic movie character, or a picture card. How many boxes of cereal would you expect to have to buy, to get all six prizes?

• ### Star Library: Random Rendezvous

This activity leads students to appreciate the usefulness of simulations for approximating probabilities. It also provides them with experience calculating probabilities based on geometric arguments and using the bivariate normal distribution. We have used it in courses in probability and mathematical statistics, as well as in an introductory statistics course at the post-calculus level. Students are expected to approximate the solution through simulation before solving it exactly. They are also expected to employ graphical as well as algebraic problem-solving strategies, in addition to their simulation analyses. Finally, students are asked to explain intuitively why it makes sense for the probabilities to change as they do. Key words: simulation, probability, geometry, independence, bivariate normal distribution
• ### The Cliff-Hanger

An applet explores the following problem: A long day hiking through the Grand Canyon has discombobulated this tourist. Unsure of which way he is randomly stumbling, 1/3 of his steps are towards the edge of the cliff, while 2/3 of his steps are towards safety. From where he stands, one step forward will send him tumbling down. What is the probability that he can escape unharmed?

• ### Estimation of Pi

This applet is designed to approximate the value of Pi. It accomplishes this purpose by firing random data points at a circle inscribed within a square. The probability of a data point landing within the circle is a ratio of the circle's area to the area of the square.