# Out-of-class

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 6 Sampling Distributions

This chapter of the HyperStat Online Textbook discusses in detail sampling distributions of various statistics (mean, median, proportions, correlation, etc.), differences between such statistics, the Central Limit Theorem, and standard error, giving formulas, examples, and exercises.

• ### Simulation of the t-distribution

The t-distribution activity is a student-based in-class activity to illustrate the conceptual reason for the t-distribution. Students use TI-83/84 calculators to conduct a simulation of random samples. The students calculate standard scores with both the population standard deviation and the sample standard deviation. The resulting values are pooled over the entire class to give the simulation a reasonable number of iterations.
• ### Analysis Tool: Log-Linear Analysis for an AxBxC Contingency Table

Log-linear analysis is a version of chi-square analysis in which the relevant values are calculated by way of weighted natural logarithms. This page will calculate several values of G^2.

• ### Analysis Tool: Kappa as a Measure of Concordance in Categorical Sorting

Calculates unweighted kappa and kappa with linear and quadratic weightings, along with some other measures of concordance.

• ### Analysis Tool: Two-Way Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples

This page will compute the Two-Way Factorial ANOVA for Independent Samples, for up to four rows by four columns. This page will also calculate the critical values of Tukey's HSD for purposes of post-ANOVA comparisons.

• ### Analysis Tool: The Power of the Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test (Monte Carlo Simulation)

In the first simulation, random samples of size n are drawn from the population one sample at a time. With df=3, the critical value of chi-square for significance at or beyond the 0.05 level is 7.815; hence, any calculated value of chi-square equal to or greater than 7.815 is recorded as "significant," while any value smaller than that is noted as "non-significant." The second simulation does the same thing, except that it draws random samples 100 at a time. The Power of the Chi-Square "Goodness of Fit" Test pertains to the questionable common practice of accepting the null hypothesis upon failing to find a significant result in a one- dimensional chi-square test.

• ### Statistical Methods in Biomedical Imaging

These lecture notes are composed of nearly 180 PowerPoint slides that have been coverted to a pdf file (6 per page) on Biomedical Imaging. The following topics are outlined: Vocabulary, Displaying Data, Central Tendency and Variability, Normal Z-scores, Standardized Distribution, Probability, Samples & Sampling Error, Type I and Type II Errors, Power of a Test, Hypothesis Testing, One Sample Tests, Two Independent Sample Tests, Two Dependent Sample Tests & Estimation, Correlation and Regression Techniques, Non-Parametric Statistical Tests, Applications of Central Limit Theorem, Law of Large Numbers, Design of Studies and Experiments, Fisher's F-Test, Analysis Of Variance(ANOVA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Chi-Square Goodness-of-fit test, Multiple Linear Regression, General Linear Model, Bootstrapping and Resampling.
• ### P Values and Statistical Significance

This resource defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing.
• ### Analysis Tool: Create a Pie Chart

This resource defines a pie chart. It also allows the user to input values to create their own graphs. The user has control over the title, up to 15 slices, the color of each slice, and can choose a 3-D option.

• ### Data Analysis

The applet in this section allows for simple data analysis of univariate data. Users can either generate normal or uniform data for k samples or copy and paste data from another source to a text box. A univariate analysis is performed for all k samples. A two-sample t-test (Pooled and Satterthwaite) is performed for k = 2. An ANOVA test is performed for k > 2. This page was formerly located at http://www.stat.vt.edu/~sundar/java/applets/Data.html