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# High School

• ### Predicting Metabolic Rates of Astronauts (NASA Activity)

NASA's Math and Science @ Work presents an activity focused on correlation coefficients, weighted averages and least squares. Students will analyze the data collected from a NASA experiment, use different approaches to estimate the metabolic rates of astronauts, and compare their own estimates to NASA's estimates.

NASA's Math and Science @ Work project provides challenging supplemental problems for students in advanced science, technology, engineering and mathematics, or STEM classes including Physics, Calculus, Biology, Chemistry and Statistics, along with problems for advanced courses in U.S. History and Human Geography.

• ### Display Design: A Human Factor of Spaceflight (NASA Activity)

NASA's Math and Science @ Work presents a free-response-styled question for advanced high school statistics. Students will evaluate the data from an experiment about astronaut response time. They then will perform hypothesis tests to see if a difference in response times indicates whether one control panel display is preferable to another.

NASA's Math and Science @ Work project provides challenging supplemental problems for students in advanced science, technology, engineering and mathematics, or STEM classes including Physics, Calculus, Biology, Chemistry and Statistics, along with problems for advanced courses in U.S. History and Human Geography.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 9 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing

This chapter explains the structure/steps of hypothesis testing, the concept of significance, the relationship between confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, and Type I/II errors.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 10 Testing Hypotheses with Standard Errors

This text explains the differences between t-tests, z-tests, tests with proportions, and tests of correlation.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 12 Introduction to Between-Subjects ANOVA

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to test hypotheses about differences between two or more means. The t-test based on the standard error of the difference between two means can only be used to test differences between two means. When there are more than two means, it is possible to compare each mean with each other mean using t-tests. However, conducting multiple t-tests can lead to severe inflation of the Type I error rate. (Click here to see why) Analysis of variance can be used to test differences among several means for significance without increasing the Type I error rate. This chapter covers designs with between-subject variables.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 13 Factorial Between-Subjects ANOVA

When an experimenter is interested in the effects of two or more independent variables, it is usually more efficient to manipulate these variables in one experiment than to run a separate experiment for each variable. Moreover, only in experiments with more than one independent variable is it possible to test for interactions among variables.  Experimental designs in which every level of every variable is paired with every level of every other variable are called factorial designs.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 14 Within-Subjects/Repeated Measures ANOVA

Within-subject designs are designs in which one or more of the independent variables are within-subject variables. Within-subjects designs are often called repeated-measures designs since within-subjects variables always involve taking repeated measurements from each subject. Within-subject designs are extremely common in psychological and biomedical research.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 15 Prediction (Linear Regression)

When two variables are related, it is possible to predict a person's score on one variable from their score on the second variable with better than chance accuracy. This section describes how these predictions are made and what can be learned about the relationship between the variables by developing a prediction equation.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 17 Distribution-Free Tests

This chapter discusses a collection of tests called distribution-free tests, or nonparametric tests, that do not make any assumptions about the distribution from which the numbers were sampled. The main advantage of distribution-free tests is that they provide more power than traditional tests when the samples are from highly-skewed distributions.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 18 Measuring Effect Size

Measures of the size of an effect based on the degree of overlap between groups usually involve calculating the proportion of the variance that can be explained by differences between groups. This resource outlines different approaches to measuring this proportion.