# Significance Level

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 9 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing

This chapter explains the structure/steps of hypothesis testing, the concept of significance, the relationship between confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, and Type I/II errors.

• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 10 Testing Hypotheses with Standard Errors

This text explains the differences between t-tests, z-tests, tests with proportions, and tests of correlation.

• ### When does a significant p-value indicate a true effect? (Shiny App)

When does a significant p-value indicate a true effect?  This app will help with understanding the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of a p-value.

This app is based on Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine, 2(8), e124. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124

• ### Song: Type I Error

A song that can be used in discussing the meaning and interpretation of Type I error in Significance Testing. The lyrics were written by Mary McLellan from Aledo High School in Aledo, Texas as one of several dozen songs created for her AP statistics course. The song may be sung to the tune of “We Will Rock You,” written by Brian May and recorded by Queen in 1977. Also, an accompanying video may be found at

• ### Understanding Hypothesis Tests: Significance Levels (Alpha) and P values in Statistics

Resource that gives a clear description of what the p-values and significance levels mean, and what statistical significance means. Graphs are used to illustrate the topics covered in this source.
• ### Tests of Significance

Resource that covers specific topics within significance testing, including significance levels. P-values and how to determine what qualifies as being statistically significant covered. Examples are given throughout the text to further explain the concepts.
• ### Hypothesis Tests: P-Value & Significance Level

Video that explains what p-values and significance levels are in hypothesis testing.
• ### Interpreting the P-Value and Significance Level

Video that will teach you how to interpret the P-Value and significance level for a two-tailed hypothesis test that is not rejected.
• ### Significance

Resource that covers what significance testing is and what it is used for. Describes the significance level and how it relates to the p-value with respect to hypothesis testing. A glossary of key concepts and terms is included at the end of the document.
• ### Significance Level

Short description of what the significance level is and what it takes for a result to be statistically significant.