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# Observational Studies

• ### Quote: Letterman on Percentages

USA Today has come out with a new survey - apparently three out of four people make up 75 percent of the population. Quote from comedian and late night talk show host David Letterman (1947 - ).
• ### Joke: the number of offspring

Statistics play an important role in genetics. For instance, statistics prove that the number of offspring you will have is an inherited trait. If your parents didn't have any kids, odds are you won't either. Joke #137 of Gary Ramseyer's "First Internet Gallery of Statistics Jokes" contributed by Hugh W. Graham of Abbott Labs.
• ### Cartoon: Question Time

A cartoon to use at the end of a class period when the instructor was rushed to finish. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
• ### Quote: Knebel on smoking and statistics

It is now proved beyond doubt that smoking is one of the leading causes of statistics. Quote found in "Reader's Digest" (December, 1961) by journalist Fletcher Knebel (1911-1993)
• ### Song: Scientific Method Blues

Song is an informal overview introducing the conceptual steps of the scientific method. Recorded on the CD "Science Songs and Stories For the Big Questions", available at www.kathleencarroll.com.
• ### Making Students Aware of Bias

The following exercise can illustrate the problem of bias in estimators to students in statistics courses. In some advanced courses an alternative estimator may be presented and properties of this estimator may be investigated via Monte Carlo studies.
• ### Quote: Vesalius on Observation

I am not accustomed to saying anything with certainty after only one or two observations. is a quote by Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). The quote is found in "Epistola rationem modumque propinandi radicis Chynae decocti".
• ### Dataset Example: An Exhalent Problem for Teaching Statistics

The dataset presented in this article contains information on respiratory function and smoking. The data can be used to explore descriptive statistics, graphical analysis, regression, and observational studies. The data are in .dat format.
• ### Dataset Example: What's Normal? -- Temperature, Gender, and Heart Rate

This article describes a dataset on body temperature, gender, and heart rate. It addresses concepts like true means, confidence intervals, t-statistics, t-tests, the normal distribution, and regression.
• ### Sampling Bias and The California Recall

This lesson deals with the statistics of political polls and ideas like sampling, bias, graphing, and measures of location. As quoted on the site, "Upon completing this lesson, students will be able to identify and differentiate between types of political samples, as well as select and use statistical and visual representations to describe a list of data. Furthermore, students will be able to identify sources of bias in samples and find ways of reducing and eliminating sampling bias." A link to a related worksheet is included.