Multivariate Quantitative Relationships

  • A joke about the over-use of playing card examples in teaching probability.

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  • As discussed, the murder rates for Blacks in the United States are substantially higher than those for Whites, with Latino murder rates falling in the middle. These differences have existed throughout the 20th and into the 21st century and, with few exceptions, are found in different sections of the United States. Although biological and genetic explanations for racial differences in crime rates, including murder, have been discredited and are no longer accepted by most criminologists, both cultural and structural theories are widespread in the literature on crime and violence. It is also important to remember that Latino is an ethnic rather than a racial classification. The point of this exercise is to examine differences in selected structural positions of Blacks, Whites and Latinos in the United States that may help explain long-standing differences in their murder rates.
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  • This module provides an activity were students will attempt to explain how each of the following variables is related to child poverty within the United States: Race, Age, Family Type, Family Size, and Immigrant Status.
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  • Research has shown that marital status and employment are correlates of desistance. That is, adolescents involved with crime were more likely to discontinue offending in adulthood if they were married and had a good job. Most of what criminologists know about the process of desistance from crime is based on a sample of adult males in the 1950's. There is no question that life in America has changed drastically in the past fifty years. Given the importance of examining historical change inherent in the life course perspective, it is important to determine how changes in the social structure over time impact individuals. Therefore, the goals of this data analysis exercise are to examine changes in marriage and employment over the last fifty years. The purposes are to identify the changes that have taken place, and to hypothesize how these changes may affect the process of desistance from crime today.
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  • This scatterplot lets users plot a number of demographic variables and see the log transformation of those variables for numerous countries and income groups. Users can also see the information for any year from 1975 to 2004.
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  • This applet simulates drawing samples from a binomial distribution. Users set the population proportion of success (pi), sample size (n), and number of samples. By clicking "Draw Samples," the applet will draw a sample and display the corresponding sample histogram. Each new sample drawn is added to the previous ones unless the user clicks "Reset" between samples. Users can choose to display the number and proportion of successes above or below a certain value (tail probabilities) by entering a value in the "Num Successes" box and clicking "Count." The portion of the distribution that meets the condition is highlighted in red, and the proportion of success is given at the bottom of the page. Clicking the inequality sign changes its direction. Clicking "Theo Values" displays the theoretical distribution in green on top of the empirical. Instructions and an activity for this applet can be found in the textbook "Investigating Statistical Concepts, Applications, and Methods" (ISCAM) in Lesson 3.2.2 on page 205.

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  • This applet generates dotplots for different data sets and allows users to guess the location of various measures of center and spread. Clicking "Resample" produces a dotplot of random data generated by the applet. A dotplot of user-input data can be generated by clicking "Edit Data" and typing or copy and pasting the data in the textbox. To guess the mean, median, standard deviation, and interquartile range (IQR) users check the "Guess Mean/Median", "Guess Deviation", or "Guess IQR" box and slide the relevant marker along the horizontal axis. When "Guess Deviation" is selected, users can also select "Show Percentages" to display the percentage of data points within the user's current guess for standard deviation. Clicking "Show Actual" displays the actual position of the selected measure on the dotplot. Clicking on an individual data point shows its value. Users can edit the data under "Edit Data" or by clicking and dragging the data points on the graph.
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  • This applet shows a scatterplot of height versus foot length. Users can add or delete points and then guess the regression line by clicking "Your Line" and moving the blue regression line. By clicking "Regression Line" users can see the actual regression line. The applet also shows the correlation and R-square for the data as well as the residuals and squared residuals for the guessed regression line and the actual regression line.
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  • This page provides links to distribution calculators, conceptual demonstration applets, statistical tables, online data analysis packages, function and image-processing tools, and other online computing resources. Key Words: Binomial; Normal; Exponential; Chi-Square; Geometric; Hypergeometric; Negative Binomial; Poisson; Student's T; F-Distribution; Wilcoxon Rank-Sum; Central Limit Theorem; Regression; Normal Approximation to Poisson; Confidence Intervals; Hypothesis Tests; Power; Sample-Size; ANOVA; Galton's Board; Function Plots; Edge Detection; Image Warping & Stretching; Polynomial Model Fitting; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Statistic.
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  • This page contains links to 5 review sheets with formulas, properties, definitions and rules for basic descriptive and inferential statistics and probability concepts. The review pages are in pdf format. Key Words: Hypothesis Testing, ANOVA, Descriptive Statistics, Regression, Correlation, Nonparametric Tests, Probability Distributions, Counting, Central Limit Theorem.
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