# Laws of Large Numbers

• ### Joke: Justifying the means

This joke can be used in a discussion of how sample size affects the reliability of the sample mean. The joke may be found amongst the extensive Science Jokes resources at www.newyorkscienceteacher.com
• ### Song: Test on Mu (to the other side)

A song about two-tailed tests for hypotheses about the mean that may be sung to the tune of the 1966 song "Break on Through (to the other side)" by the Doors. Lyrics by Dennis Pearl of The Ohio State University. Musical accompaniment realization and vocals are by Joshua Lintz from University of Texas at El Paso.

• ### Cartoon: The Boston Marathon

A cartoon to teach ideas of probability ad the Law of Large Numbers. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.

• ### Cartoon: T Test Headaches

A cartoon that might accompany a discussion about the use and misuse of significance tests like the T-Test. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
• ### Cartoon: Two Casinos

A cartoon to teach about the law of large numbers and the expected value under the assumption that future events are unknown to the betting strategy. Cartoon by John Landers (www.landers.co.uk) based on an idea from Dennis Pearl (The Ohio State University). Free to use in the classroom and on course web sites.
• ### Quote: Wright on the Law of Averages

While nothing is more uncertain than the duration of a single life, nothing is more certain than the average duration of a thousand lives. A quote of American actuary and abolitionist Elizur Wright (1804 - 1885).
• ### Quote: Mauldin on the Law of Averages

I feel like a fugitive from the law of averages. A quote of soldier and U.S. cartoonist William H. Mauldin (1921 - 2003) from a cartoon caption in the first published collection of his work, "Up Front" (H. Holt and Co., 1945)
• ### Quote: Stamp on Data Quality

The individual source of the statistics may easily be the weakest link. Harold Cox tells a story of his life as a young man in India. He quoted some statistics to a Judge, an Englishman, and a very good fellow. His friend said, Cox, when you are a bit older, you will not quote Indian statistics with that assurance. The Government are very keen on amassing statistics ... they collect them, add them, raise them to the nth power, take the cube root and prepare wonderful diagrams. But what you must never forget is that every one of these figures comes in the first place from the `chowty dar` [village watchman], who just puts down what he damn pleases." Quoted from "Some Economic Factors in Modern Life" (King and Son, 1929; p. 258) by Sir Josiah Charles Stamp (1880 - 1941), British economist, statistician, director of the Bank of England and president of the Royal Statistical Society.
• ### Regression Applet

This applet was designed to illustrate the impact on simple linear regression output caused by adding a new data point. The applet simulates data and provides a graphical display of the data points and fitted regression line as well as the updated regression line after the addition of a data point.
• ### Spinning Wheel

This activity uses a computer program to explore probability concepts such as sample space, independent events, law of large numbers, and reliability. An outline of the activity and the computer program are provided.