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Categorical versus Quantitative

  • The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning. Key words: bar charts, Caesar Shift, encryption, testing hypotheses

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  • This program visualizes the effects of outliers to regression lines. The user may pick up a point with the mouse and move it across the chart. The resulting regression line is automatically adjusted after each movement, showing the effect in an immediate and impressive way. The program Leverage allows one to experiment with the leverage effect. You can create a random sample of data noisy points on a line. Dragging one of the points away from the regression line immediately shows the effect, as the regression line is recalculated and moves according to the current data set. Not online: user has to download the program.

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  • This site provides links to lecture outlines for an upper-level statistics class. Topics include hypothesis testing, ANOVA and regression.
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  • In this activity, students work in groups to provide practical interpretations of graphs, considering shape, center, and spread. Each group posts their interpretation for one graph and critiques other groups' interpretations on other graphs. Students examine key aspects (shape, spread, location, etc) of histograms and stem plots to develop the ability to interpret graphics. This activity gets the students up and out of their seats and working together. It is a good activity for early in a term. The Gallery Walk idea can be adapted for different sized classes but this activity has been designed for classes up to 65 students.
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  • This resource presents population, housing, economic, and geographic data. (U.S. Census Bureau)
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