# Resource Library

#### Statistical Topic

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• ### HyperStat Online: Ch. 6 Sampling Distributions

This chapter of the HyperStat Online Textbook discusses in detail sampling distributions of various statistics (mean, median, proportions, correlation, etc.), differences between such statistics, the Central Limit Theorem, and standard error, giving formulas, examples, and exercises.

• ### Strategies for data analysis

This presentation on data analysis addresses observational studies and randomized controlled trials in two different sections. Types of studies are defined and examples of each study is given to emphasize the differences. Factors and variables are also discussed.

• ### Breaking the Code -- A Graphical Exploration Using Bar Charts (Star Library)

The Caesar Shift is a translation of the alphabet; for example, a five-letter shift would code the letter a as f, b as g, ... z as e. We describe a five-step process for decoding an encrypted message. First, groups of size 4 construct a frequency table of the letters in two lines of a coded message. Second, students construct a bar chart for a reference message of the frequency of letters in the English language. Third, students create a bar chart of the coded message. Fourth, students visually compare the bar chart of the reference message (step 2) to the bar chart of the coded message (step 3). Based on this comparison, students hypothesize a shift. Fifth, students apply the shift to the coded message. After decoding the message, students are asked a series of questions that assess their ability to see patterns. The questions are geared for higher levels of cognitive reasoning. Key words: bar charts, Caesar Shift, encryption, testing hypotheses

• ### The Cliff-Hanger

An applet explores the following problem: A long day hiking through the Grand Canyon has discombobulated this tourist. Unsure of which way he is randomly stumbling, 1/3 of his steps are towards the edge of the cliff, while 2/3 of his steps are towards safety. From where he stands, one step forward will send him tumbling down. What is the probability that he can escape unharmed?

• ### Counting Eights: A First Activity in the Study and Interpretation of Probability (Star Library)

Students explore the definition and interpretations of the probability of an event by investigating the long run proportion of times a sum of 8 is obtained when two balanced dice are rolled repeatedly. Making use of hand calculations, computer simulations, and descriptive techniques, students encounter the laws of large numbers in a familiar setting. By working through the exercises, students will gain a deeper understanding of the qualitative and quantitative relationships between theoretical probability and long run relative frequency. Particularly, students investigate the proximity of the relative frequency of an event to its probability and conclude, from data, the order on which the dispersion of the relative frequency diminishes. Key words: probability, law of large numbers, simulation, estimation

Includes project file for Minitab and coding for a dice rolling simulation.

Gapminder seeks to educate all on the importance of "factfulness" and of knowing and contextualizing the statistics that describe the state of our world.  Learn facts from across the globe such as average income, life expectancy, energy use, education levels, and much more.

Download Gapminder’s slides, tools, posters, handouts, lesson plans, and presentations at this webpage.

• ### Gapminder for Teachers

Gapminder seeks to educate all on the importance of "factfulness" and of knowing and contextualizing the statistics that describe the state of our world.  Learn facts from across the globe such as average income, life expectancy, energy use, education levels, and much more.

This particular page gives teachers resources to use in their classrooms involving the tools and data found on Gapminder.

• ### Data 8: The Foundations of Data Science

This UC Berkeley Foundations of Data Science course combines three perspectives: inferential thinking, computational thinking, and real-world relevance. Given data arising from some real-world phenomenon, how does one analyze that data so as to understand that phenomenon? This course teaches critical concepts and skills in computer programming and statistical inference, in conjunction with hands-on analysis of real-world datasets, including economic data, document collections, geographical data, and social networks. It delves into social issues surrounding data analysis such as privacy and design.

• ### Web Interface for Statistics Education (WISE)

The goal of WISE is to provide students and teachers of statistics easy access to a wide range of resources that are freely available on the internet. We invite you to explore our website and enjoy many wonderful statistical materials from around the world.

• ### SticiGui Interactive Statistics Textbook

This text was written for an introductory class in Statistics suitable for students in Business, Communications, Economics, Psychology, Social Science, or liberal arts; that is, this is the first and last class in Statistics for most students who take it. It also covers logic and reasoning at a level suitable for a general education course.  SticiGui provides text, interactive tools, lecture videos, sample exam reviews, and more for a course in basic statistical concepts.