# Resource Library

#### Statistical Topic

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• ### Spearman's rho

Gives a very brief explanation of Spearman' rho and how it differs from Pearson's r.
• ### Case Studies in Process Modeling (Engineering Statistics Handbook)

The online "Engineering Statistics Handbook" provides a section (4.6 Case Studies in Process Modeling) using detailed realistic examples from physical science and engineering applications. Examples in Load Cell Calibration, Alaska Pipeline Ultrasonic Calibration, Ultrasonic Reference Block Study, and Thermal Expansion of Copper Case Study are presented in a step-by-step manner.
• ### RVLS Case Studies

This site provides case studies which cover subject areas including: analysis of variance, boxplots, confidence intervals, contrast among means, correlated t-test, correlation, histograms, independent groups t-test, regression, repeated measures ANOVA, and t-tests.
• ### Markov vs. Markov: Divorce by the Numbers

This case study explores statistics on divorce rates using Markov chains. Two closely related statistics are presented: the chance of divorcing in a given year and the chance of divorcing over the lifetime of a marriage. Accompanying teacher instructions are found at http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/markov/markov_notes.html
• ### Myth and Reality in Reporting Sampling Error

This article gives a description of typical sources of error in public opinion polls. It gives a short but insightful explanation of what the margin of error indicates as well as other common errors in opinion polls.
• ### Variance and standard deviation

This source defines and explains variance and standard deviation.
• ### Poisson Distribution

This lesson on the Poisson distribution explains the theory, history, and applications of the distribution and gives examples and a multiple choice test.
• ### Confidence Intervals

This resource assists the user in reading, constructing, and understanding confidence intervals.
• ### Statistical Significance

This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.
• ### Interpreting Statistical p-values

This page discusses the understanding of and interpretation of p-values for those who read articles with statistical information.