# Simulation

• ### Analysis Tool: Chi-Square Test for Known Distributions

This test checks whether an observed distribution differs from an expected distribution. It computes the chi-square statistic, degrees of freedom (DoF), and p-value. Users input a table with row and column labels, observed frequencies on the first row, and expected frequencies on the second row. The null hypothesis is that the observed values have the expected frequency distribution.

• ### Analysis Tool: Chi-Square Test for Equality of Distributions

This calculator computes the chi-square statistic, degrees of freedom (DoF), and p-value for the Chi-square test for equality of distributions. Users input a table of values with row and column labels without total scores. The null hypothesis is that the all the samples have the same distribution.

• ### HotBits

HotBits is a genuine random number generator powered by radioactive decay. Simply click the "Request HotBits" link, and specify how many bytes you would like (up to 2048) and in what form you prefer them. Hexadecimal returns numbers and letters, while C language returns integers. Then click the "Get HotBits" button, and your random numbers will appear on the screen.
• ### Analysis Tool: Multiple Linear Regressions

This online calculator allows users to enter 16 observations with up to 4 dependent variables and calculates the regression equation, the fitted values, R-Squared, the F-Statistic, mean, variance, first order serial-correlation, second order serial-correlation, the Durbin-Watson statistic, and the mean absolute errors. It also tests normality and gives the i-th residuals.

• ### Data Collection: Files for "Investigating Statistical Concepts, Applications, And Methods"

This page contains applets and data files that supplement the text "Investigating Statistical Concepts, Applications, And Methods." The applets and files are organized according to chapter; each data file is available in Minitab or text format.
• ### Data Collection: Data Sets from Regression Graphics

The datasets in this collection are in text format, but are also compatible with Arc software from "Regression Graphics." Each set has a title, description, and data table. The software is available in the relation link below.
• ### Statistics and Probability Tutorial

This tutorial provides a basic introduction to many topics in statistics and probability. Topics include: Sets and subsets, Statistical experiments, Counting, Basic probability rules, Bayes' theorem, Probability distributions, Discrete vs. Continuous, Binomial, Negative Binomial, Hypergeometric, Multinomial, Poisson, Normal, Sampling theory, Central tendency, Variability, Sampling distributions, t Distribution, Chi-Square Distribution, F Distribution, Estimation problems, Hypothesis testing, Power, Survey sampling, Simple random samples, Stratified samples, Cluster samples, Sample size.
• ### Social Structure, Race/Ethnicity, and Homocide

As discussed, the murder rates for Blacks in the United States are substantially higher than those for Whites, with Latino murder rates falling in the middle. These differences have existed throughout the 20th and into the 21st century and, with few exceptions, are found in different sections of the United States. Although biological and genetic explanations for racial differences in crime rates, including murder, have been discredited and are no longer accepted by most criminologists, both cultural and structural theories are widespread in the literature on crime and violence. It is also important to remember that Latino is an ethnic rather than a racial classification. The point of this exercise is to examine differences in selected structural positions of Blacks, Whites and Latinos in the United States that may help explain long-standing differences in their murder rates.
• ### Fear of Crime

Everyday we have specific routines we engage in. Many of these routines are tailored to preventing us from becoming victims of crime. We do things like lock our doors, watch where we walk at night, or avoid walking alone. We take these actions because at some level we are afraid of the possibility of being a victim of crime. Although we may not consciously think about it, these routines may be influenced by a variety of factors. What factors might make some individuals more afraid than others?

• ### Race and Changing Household Structure

The textbook for this course discusses cross-cultural variations in household structure, as well as changes across time in household structure in the United States. The purpose of this exercise is to examine variations in household structure in the United States according to race and historical period. By the end of the exercise students should have a better appreciation of the fact that household structure in the U.S. is very fluid and that changes over time in household structure have not progressed uniformly for all race groups.