Innovation and efficiency were examined for their effects on collaboration and learning in two experiments with university students. From the first experiment, the Innovation task promoted more knowledge-sharing behaviors than the Efficiency task. In the second experiment (built from the first experiment), participants learned about the Chi-square formula and their understanding of it was assessed with basic calculation questions, comprehension questions, and difficult transfer problems. As part of the transfer problems, a preparation for future learning (PFL) assessment was used to measure participants' ability to adapt their knowledge of the chi-square formula (Bransford & Schwartz, 1999). Participants in the Innovation condition scored significantly higher on the transfer problems, and Innovation dyads showed he greatest performance on the target PFL question.