Research on teacher knowledge has typically examined teachers outside of the classroom in which they use their knowledge. Recognising that it is difficult to separate a teacher's knowledge from the context in which it is used, there has been a move towards studies being conducted in the classroom. Statistics presents its own challenges for teaching and learning compared with mathematics teaching and learning, especially with the growing recognition of and research around statistical thinking. Consequently there is need for an approach to examining teacher knowledge in relation to the actual work of teaching of statistics. This paper suggests a framework for examining the knowledge of primary (elementary) teachers as they engage in teaching statistics. The framework recognises that teacher knowledge is dynamic and dependent on the context of the classroom and students within it.