Chance News 37
How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?Boethius (ca. 480-525)
If we can increase IQ by three to four points in the whole population, we can have fewer children at the low end and more Einsteins at the high end.
Human milk also contains cholesterol, while formula doesn't. We learned to fear cholesterol and yet cholesterol is very important for brain tissue, it's very important for nerve tissue. That's why human milk is a better nutrient to support brain growth
Submited by Paul Alper
Except possibly for the manufacturers of formula milk, most people believe that breast milk is superior to infant formula with regard to the physical health of the child. According to "Breastfeeding and Child Cognitive Development," by Michael Kramer, et al, Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 65, (No. 5), May 2008, 578-584, breastfeeding is also superior for the mental development of the child.
The numbers are impressive: 17 authors, 17,046 infants enrolled, of whom 13,889 were followed up at age 6.5 years, at which time,
according to HealthDay Reporter of May 5, 2008,
Those children who were exclusively breast-fed scored, on average, 7.5 points higher in verbal intelligence, 2.9 points higher in nonverbal intelligence, and 5.9 points higher in overall intelligence.
Nevertheless, with a closer look at the journal article, some of the numbers fade. Two of the three measures of intelligence just mentioned turn out not to be statistically significant. All in the control group also breastfed their infants with the difference being only the number of months of breastfeeding in the control group was less than in the (encouraged to breastfeed) treatment group. "[B]linding of the pediatricians [who administered the IQ test] to the experimental vs control group assignment was infeasible."
1. Not so long ago, breast milk was not considered superior to infant formula. Make a case for the superiority of infant formula.
2. This study was carried out entirely in Belarus where according to the article, "> 95% of mothers in Belarus" choose to initiate breastfeeding. If the percentage in the U.S. is vastly different, how does this affect the generality of the conclusions?
3. The treatment group was "encouraged" to continue breastfeeding; the control group was neither encouraged nor discouraged. At the end of 12 months, those still breastfeeding were 19.7% and 11.4%, respectively. Ask a friendly librarian to find the comparison within the U.S. after 12 months.
4. IQ and intelligence are often conflated and elided. Use a search engine or that friendly librarian to find out how many different kinds of IQ tests there are. In addition, determine the strengths and weaknesses of the WASI test, the one used in the breastfeeding study.
5. The children in the study had their IQ measured via WASI at the age of 6.5 years. Did you ever have an IQ test? How old were you? Where you or your parents informed of your score? Were you ever retested? If so, did you go up or down? Do you feel that as far as intelligence is concerned, an individual is completely determined by the age of 6.5?
6. Although intelligence testing was originally proposed as a means of helping those who need help, IQ testing is often used as a form of rank ordering because of its precision and presumed accuracy. Richard Feynman, generally conceded as the most prominent physicist of the second half of the 20th century, had an IQ, one point lower than his sister. Do a literature search to determine his IQ. Likewise, do a literature search to determine what his sister did with that one point advantage.
7. The lead author of the study backs off from the simplistic claim that "Long and exclusive breast-feeding makes kid smarter." Obtain the articles mentioned to see what else he says might be the causal reason for IQ improvement.
Submitted by Paul Alper
Longer limbs mean less risk of dementia
Ian Sample, science correspondent
Guardian, Tuesday May 6 2008
Leggy women and gangly men are less likely to develop Alzheimer's, according to a study that suggests a healthy upbringing protects against the degenerative disease. Researchers took limb measurements of 2,798 men and women with an average age of 72 and monitored them for five years. At the end of the study 480 had developed Alzheimer's or other types of dementia.
The study showed that women with longer legs had a much lower risk of dementia, with every extra inch of leg reducing their risk by 16%. Women with the shortest arms were 50% more likely to develop the disease than those with the longest arms. The study, which appears in the journal Neurology, revealed that only arm length was linked to men's risk of Alzheimer's, with every extra inch lowering their risk by 6%. Scientists who ran the study at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore believe the link may be explained by poor nutrition in early life.
A second report in the same journal studied the effect of the painkiller ibuprofen on Alzheimer's disease. Doctors at Boston University Medical School found that people who used ibuprofen for at least five years had a 40% lower risk of dementia. The risk was lower among those who took the drug over longer periods. Because the effect is tentative, the scientists said ibuprofen should not be administered specifically to prevent dementia.
Submitted by Paul Alper
Cold hit DNA matches
Debate on analyzing 'cold hit' DNA matches swirls in case before California Supreme Court. A long-time scientific controversy centers on how to calculate the probability that such a match would be the result of coincidence.
Los Angeles Times, May 9, 2008
Jason Felch and Maura Dolan