Minor edits

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What it looks like What you type

Start your sections with header lines:

New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection


== New section ==

=== Subsection ===

==== Sub-subsection ====

A single newline has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Some editors find that this aids editing and improves the diff function.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

A single [[newline]]
has no effect on the layout. 
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the ''diff'' function.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.
You can break lines<br/>
without starting a new paragraph.
  • Lists are easy to do:
    • start every line with a star
      • more stars means deeper levels
* Lists are easy to do:
** start every line with a star
*** more stars means deeper levels
  1. Numbered lists are also good
    1. very organized
    2. easy to follow
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
  • You can even do mixed lists
    1. and nest them
      • like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this
Definition list 
list of definitions
item 
the item's definition
; Definition list : list 
of definitions
; item : the item's definition
A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

  • This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
IF a line starts with a space THEN
  it will be formatted exactly 
    as typed;
  in a fixed-width font;
  lines won't wrap;
  it gets its own dotted-line box;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
  * pasting preformatted text;
  * algorithm descriptions;
  * program source code
  * ascii art;

WARNING If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.

 IF a line starts with a space THEN
   it will be formatted exactly 
     as typed;
   in a fixed-width font;
   lines won't wrap;
   it gets its own dotted-line box;
 ENDIF
 this is useful for:
   * pasting preformatted text;
   * algorithm descriptions;
   * program source code
   * ascii art;
Centered text.
<center>Centered text.</center>
A horizontal dividing line: above

and below.

Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.

A horizontal dividing line: above
----
and below. 

Links, URLs, images

.
What it looks like What you type
Sue is studying discrete mathematics.
  • First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
  • Internally spaces are automatically represented as underscores (typing an underscore has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).

Thus the link above is to http://www.Wikibooks.org/wiki/Discrete_mathematics, which is the article with the name "Discrete mathematics".

Sue is studying [[discrete mathematics]].

Link to a section on a page, e.g.

List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco (links to non-existent sections aren't really broken, they are treated as links to the page, i.e. to the top)
[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]]
Same target, different name ("piped link"): answers.
Same target, different name: 
[[Wikibooks FAQ|answers]]
Endings are blended into the link: testing, genes
Endings are blended 
into the link: [[test]]ing, [[gene]]s

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Staff lounge. <p>The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature. </td>

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. 
Automatically hide namespace: 
[[Wikibooks:Staff lounge|]].

</td></tr>

When adding a comment to a Talk page,

you should sign it. You can do this by adding three tildes for your user name:

Karl Wick

or four for user name plus date/time:

Karl Wick 08:10 Oct 5, 2002 (UTC)</td>
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it. You can do this by
adding three tildes for your user name:
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~

</td> </tr>

The weather in London is a page that doesn't

exist yet.

  • You can create it by clicking on the link.
  • To create a new page:
    1. Create a link to it on some other page.
    2. Save that page.
    3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
  • Have a look at how to start a page guide and Wikibooks's naming conventions.
  • After creating a page, search for its title and make sure that everyone correctly links to it.

</td>

[[The weather in London]] is a page 
that doesn't exist yet.

</td> </tr>

Redirect one article title to another by putting text like this in its first line. </td>

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

</td> </tr>

For a special way to link to the article on the same subject in another language, see Wikibooks:Interlanguage links. </td>

 </td>

</tr>

External link: Nupedia

</td>

External link: 
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]

</td> </tr>

Or just give the URL: http://www.nupedia.com.
  • In the URL all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%-+&#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF. If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written %5E (to be looked up in ASCII).

</td>

Or just give the URL: 
http://www.nupedia.com.

</td> </tr>


Link to an article in another Wikimedia project:

This is a special shortcut so you don't have to write out the whole URL. </td>

Link to an article in another Wikimedia project: 
*[[w:Main Page|Wikipedia]]
*[[m:Main Page|Meta]]
*[[wikt:Main Page|Wiktionary]]
*[[wikisource:Main Page|Wikisource]]
*[[commons:Main Page|Wikimedia Commons]]
*[[q:Main Page|Wikiquote]]
*[[n:Main Page|Wikinews]]
*[[wikispecies:Main Page|Wikispecies]]
*[[w:de:Hauptseite|German language Wikipedia]]

</td> </tr>


A picture: Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia

</td>

A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]

or, with alternate text (strongly encouraged)

[[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia]] 

Web browsers render alternate text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud. See Alternate text for images for help on choosing alternate text. </td> </tr>

Percent completed images:
100% - 100%.png
75% - 75%.png
50% - 50%.png
25% - 25%.png </td>

[[Image:100%.png]]
[[Image:75%.png]]
[[Image:50%.png]]
[[Image:25%.png]]

</td> </tr>

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:Wiki.png </td>

[[:Image:Wiki.png]]

</td> </tr>

To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, or to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
Sound

Image of a Tornado </td>


[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
[[media:Tornado.jpg|Image of a Tornado]]
</td></tr>

To link to books, you can use Wikibooks:ISBN links. ISBN 0123456789X </td>

ISBN 0123456789X </td> </tr> </table>

Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

  • These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''', 
'''''very strongly'''''.

You can also write italic and bold if the desired effect is a specific font style rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulae:

F = ma
  • However, the difference between these two methods is not very important for graphical browsers, and many people choose to ignore it.
You can also write <i>italic</i> and <b>bold</b>
if the desired effect is a specific font style
rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulas:
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
A typewriter font for technical terms.
A typewriter font for <tt>technical terms</tt>.
You can use small text for captions.
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
You can strike out deleted material

and underline new material.

You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

Umlauts and accents: (See Wikibooks:Special characters)
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; 
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; 
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; 
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; 
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; 
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil; 
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; 
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; 
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ « » § ¶
† ‡ • —

&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &mdash;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥

£ ¤
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; 
&pound; &curren;
Subscript: x2

Superscript: x2 or x²

  • The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12

C² / J m.
Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&sup2;
&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.
Greek characters:

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; 
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; 
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho;  &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi; 
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;

Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ →
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔
(See also WikiBookProject Mathematics)

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; &rarr;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;
x2   ≥   0 true.
  • To space things out, use non-breaking spaces - &nbsp;.
  • &nbsp; also prevents line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas.
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;&nbsp;0 true.

Complicated formulae:
  [math]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}[/math]

  
<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (<i>to</i>) the [[Wikibooks FAQ]]

  • Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
  • Escapes all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
  • Does not escape HTML character entities.
<nowiki>Link &rarr; (<i>to</i>) 
the [[Wikibooks FAQ]]</nowiki>

Commenting page source:
not shown in page

  • Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
<!-- comment here -->

Tables

HTML tables can be quite useful as well, as you can see above. For details on how to use them and discussion about when they are appropriate, see Wikibooks:How to create tables.

See also