Hot Flashes


This dataset contains baseline data from a 14-year cohort study by Freeman et al (2001) that investigated race differences among 375 participants (182 African Americans versus 193 Caucasians) in the occurrence of  hot flashes (# events = 118) during the late reproductive years. Both the primary outcome and predictor variables are binary and include self-reported hot flashes in the past month at baseline and race, respectively. There are 12 baseline covariates that provide information on prior menopausal symptoms, demographics, body mass index, reproductive hormone levels, and smoking. The data include a small number of missing values but are otherwise clean.

Study DesignTopicStatistical MethodStatistical MethodStatistical Method
Cross-SectionalHot FlashesBasic InferenceContingency TablesLogistic Regression


The Hot Flashes dataset was contributed by Laura Grau MPH, Xernona Okungu, and Mary D Sammel, ScD, Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus. Please refer to this resource as: Grau, L, Okungu, X and Sammel, MD, “Hot Flashes Dataset”, TSHS Resources Portal (2023). Available at


Menopause heralds a complex array of hormonal and physiologic changes, the most common of which is the feverish discomfort of hot flashes and often accompanied by sweating, chills and anxiety. The Mayo Clinic defines a hot flash as the “sudden feeling of warmth in the upper body which is usually most intense over the face, neck and chest”. Among women in the menopausal transition, hot flashes typically occur daily, are between 2-5 minutes duration, and can be expected to persist for more than 7 years ( Variations in hot flash experiences during the menopausal transition among different populations have been observed but are incompletely understood. Freeman et al (2001) explored race differences in self-reported hot flashes in a multivariable analysis that also considered other hypothesized correlates: prior symptoms of menopause, current reproductive hormone levels, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and smoking.


The purpose of this study was to investigate race differences in the odds (OR) of self-reported hot flashes (African American versus Caucasian), both unadjusted and after adjustment for pre-menopausal symptoms, current reproductive hormone levels, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, age, and education.

Subjects & Variables

Subject# Obs# VarIntroductionData Dictionary
Hot Flashes37514Hot Flashes Dataset IntroductionHot Flashes Data Dictionary

Data Downloads

Posting DateContributor (email)
Hot Flashes-RHot Flashes-SASHot Flashes-StataHot Flashes-SPSSHot Flashes-MinitabHot Flashes-Excel